Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Application of High-Power Ultrasound in the Food Industry

Written By

Leire Astráin-Redín, Salomé Ciudad-Hidalgo, Javier Raso, Santiago Condón, Guillermo Cebrián and Ignacio Álvarez

Submitted: September 4th, 2019Reviewed: November 11th, 2019Published: December 30th, 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90444

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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to summarize potential applications of the high-power ultrasound technology (5 W/cm2; 20–100 kHz) in the food industry. Those applications are mainly related to the improvement in mass and energy transfer in different processes when ultrasound is applied in water or through air, e.g., reduction in dehydration; thawing and freezing times and energy costs of plant-, meat-, or fish-based products; increase the extraction yields of intracellular compounds with biological activity; reduction of chemical health risks such as cadmium or acrylamide; etc. The influence of some physical parameters like temperature and pressure in cavitation intensity and the potential of this technology to even inactivate microorganisms in food products and surfaces in contact with food will be discussed. Several examples of these applications will be presented, with reference to some of the industrial or pilot plant systems available in the market to be implemented in the food industry.

Keywords

  • mass transfer
  • heat transfer
  • cavitation
  • food preservation
  • food quality

1. Introduction

Ultrasound is considered an emerging technology in the food industry that is gaining interest due to its potential to improve several process including mass and energy transfer processes among others. It also enables to obtain safer and higher quality products than with traditional procedures. Furthermore, it should be remarked that it is also considered a safe, nonpolluting and environmentally friendly technology [1].

Ultrasonic technology consists of the application of mechanical waves with frequency over the threshold of human hearing (>16 kHz) [2]. Depending on its frequency and intensity, the ultrasonic spectrum can be further divided into low-frequency (20–100 kHz) high-power (>1 W/cm2) ultrasound and high-frequency (>100 kHz) low-power (<1 W/cm2) ultrasound. Low-power ultrasound is applied for noninvasive and nondestructive analyses, and it is mainly used in other areas such as medicine and cosmetics. In the food industry, this type of ultrasonic waves is basically used for process and quality control (e.g., fluid flow and container filling control, location of foreign bodies, or evaluation of the homogenization and/or emulsification efficiency). In contrast, high-power ultrasound is able to produce changes in the material or process to which they are applied, and it is used in a large variety of processes in the food industry (e.g., surface cleaning and decontamination, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, degassing, defoaming, and improvement of mass transfer, among others). Therefore, high-power ultrasound is the one of great interest in the food industry, and in this chapter, it will be discussed in more detail.

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2. Effects of ultrasound in food matrices mechanism of action

Ultrasonic sound waves propagate through air, water, and solid media, generating pressure variations that cause the vibration of particles in the medium. The effects of the application of high-power ultrasound in food products are therefore dependent on the medium of propagation (liquid, solid or gas) and also on the parameters of the process such as frequency, intensity, pressure, and temperature, among others. Applying ultrasound in liquid medium is the simplest and the most common process in the food industry. Cavitation is the main phenomenon responsible of ultrasound effects when applied to a liquid. Basically, cavitation occurs when the microbubbles present in the liquid increase in size as a result of the cycles of high and low pressure generated by the ultrasonic waves until they become unstable and collapse releasing a large amount of energy (theoretically up to 5000 K and 1000 atm) [1]. As a consequence, different effects are generated. These can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Within the physical effects, microjets and microstreaming phenomena are the most relevant ones. Microjets are high-pressure water streams projected to the surface of solids that lead to the formation of pores and surface erosion, causing the release of material into the medium depending on the intensity of the jets. By contrast, microstreaming occurs in the middle of the surrounding liquid, and when its speed is high enough, it can break membrane cells, release intracellular enzymes, etc. [3]. These physical effects are more likely to occur at low frequencies (20–40 kHz) when the number of cavitation spots is low but the energy associated to them is higher. At higher frequencies (80–100 kHz), the number of spots is higher, but bubble size is smaller, so the energy released is lower and the prevalent effects are mainly chemical [4]. The primary radicals that are generated by ultrasound are H• and •OH, which can be then recombined to form other reactive species (H2, H2O2) [5]. Therefore, depending on both the ultrasound intensity and, mainly, frequency, different effects, physical or chemical, are produced.

On the other hand, when an ultrasonic wave passes through a solid medium, it produces a series of alternating contractions and expansions, a phenomenon known as the “sponge effect,” which facilitates the transfer of matter with the medium surrounding the solid [6]. Moreover, this mechanical stress can cause the formation of microchannels in the interior of the solid, also favoring mass transfer processes. In this case, it is unlikely that the cavitation phenomenon would occur in the liquid phase of the solid matrix [7].

Finally, although the application of high-intensity ultrasound is more complicated in gas medium, its effects on the solid/gas interface are particularly interesting, including pressure variation, oscillating flow, and microstreams [8]. The development of efficient ultrasonic systems to be applied in for gas medium is highly limited by the power loss that occurs when sound waves are propagating through air and by the mismatch between acoustic impedances of gases and solids or liquids [9]. As it will be discussed below, its main application is the improvement of food dehydration processes and defoaming.

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3. Factors affecting cavitation

In the food industry, ultrasound is applied trough a liquid media in most applications, becoming cavitation the main mechanisms of action in these processes, as pointed out above. However, in order to apply ultrasound effectively to these food matrices, it is necessary to consider a group of factors influencing the cavitation phenomenon, including the characteristics of the ultrasound source (frequency, amplitude, ultrasonic supplier), characteristics of the treatment medium (solid particles, gas bubbles, viscosity), and treatment conditions (pressure and temperature) [2]. Regarding the characteristics of ultrasound source, the frequency and amplitude are the most important parameters that condition the effects of the treatment. As stated above, frequency determines the size of the bubbles and, thus, the intensity of the implosion. Amplitude is directly related to the amount of energy supplied to the system and the ultrasonic intensity [3]. At high amplitudes, the oscillation of the bubbles is higher, being the implosion more powerful and leading to further effects derived from cavitation. However, depending on the desired effects, this may not always be of interest, and therefore it is essential to optimize the treatment parameters. For example, for hydrating thawed cod fillets, the highest weight gain (18%) of fillets after 48 hours of hydration was observed when applying the 10% of the power of an ultrasound system of 35 kHz and 200 W. When ultrasound was working at the maximum amplitude of the system (100%), 12% of weight gain was observed, which was a lower value than that of the control process without using ultrasound (14%) [10]. As it will be discussed later on, both frequency and amplitude condition the ultrasonic supplier which defines the way of application of ultrasound to the product and its effects.

Besides the state of the treatment medium (solid, liquid or gas), solid particles, gas bubbles, and viscosity also influence cavitation. The presence of solid particles and gas bubbles act as nucleation points which enhance the formation of bubbles reducing the effects of cavitation. Regarding the viscosity of the medium, bubble formation is more difficult the higher the viscosity of the medium is, but the implosion is more powerful. Moreover, ultrasound has interesting effects in viscous products in order to improve energy transfer as it will be discussed below.

Finally, temperature and static pressure are key factors conditioning cavitation which are modified depending on the application. Thus, the increment of temperature reduces the viscosity of the medium and raises the vapor pressure enabling bubble formation. However, the amount of vapor inside the bubbles increases with temperature, producing the cushioning of the collapse and leading to a lower intensity of cavitation. Therefore, it is considered that there is an optimal temperature at which acoustic cavitation is maximum [11]. On the contrary, when pressure increases, cavitation is hindered, but when the implosion happens, the energy released is considerably higher. Based on these effects of temperature and pressure, two processes have been defined: manosonication (MS) and manothermosonication (MTS) which have been shown to offer new possibilities of ultrasound at temperatures near or even above 100°C as it will be commented later on.

In summary, many factors have to be considered when designing ultrasound equipment and processes in the food industry in order to secure an efficient application.

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4. Basic ultrasound systems used in the food industry

Since the application of ultrasound in the food industry is very dependent on the ultrasound supplier, it is worthy to consider this point.

There are different ultrasound systems for food applications depending on the treatment medium and the desired effect. It is essential to achieve a successful fit between application system and treatment medium in order to be able to transfer the maximum amount of acoustic energy to the medium. As indicated, the application of ultrasound through liquid medium is the most used in the food industry. For this application, commercial equipment can be divided into two types: ultrasound water baths (indirect application) and probes or horns (direct application). Ultrasonic water baths are widely used due to their lower price and easy maintenance. They consist of a tank to which one or more piezoelectric transducers (40–130 kHz) are connected at the bottom or at the sides and the generated sound waves are propagated through the water or other liquid medium in which the food product is immersed (Figure 1(a)) [12]. The ultrasonic intensity is low (0.1–1 W/cm2), and the treatment is less homogeneous throughout the volume due to the formation of nodes [11]. In the food industry, this type of equipment has been used for surface cleaning, degassing, enzymatic and microbial inactivation, improvement of mass transfer, etc. [13]. On the other hand, horn or probe is a direct system in which the food product is in contact to the ultrasound supplier. These equipment allow to apply higher intensities (>5 W/cm2) than water baths, but they are more expensive. In these systems, three parts can be differenced (Figure 1(b)): the transducer, the amplifier of the ultrasonic signal, and the horn. The tip of the horn has to be introduced into the sonication medium, so this design is mainly used for treating liquid foods, but application in solids has also been described [14, 15]. Depending on the shape of the horn, its application will be determined and used for cell disruption, homogenization, cutting of soft products, etc. [16].

Figure 1.

Ultrasound generation systems: (a) ultrasonic bath, (b) probe or horn, and (c) airborne transducer.

The equipment developed for the application of ultrasound through the air (called airborne) is less common due to the difficulty of its design. The type of transducer used for this application differs depending on the application: stepped plate, ribbed plate, stepped-ribbed plate, and cylindrical radiator [1, 13, 17]. The basic structure is a piezoelectric transducer in sandwich configuration and an amplifier or horn (Figure 1(c)). The horn is attached to a radiator which vibrates, and due to its surface, the resistance increases, and the differences in impedance between the transducer and medium are reduced. This kind of systems is very well described in the works of Gallego-Juárez et al. [1] and Charoux et al. [17], among other publications.

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5. Applications of high-power ultrasound in the food industry

In recent years, numerous applications of high-power ultrasound have been developed in food processing, including product quality control, emulsification, food preservation, and improvement of mass and energy transfer processes. Some of these applications are summarized in this part of the chapter.

5.1 Emulsion formation

The use of ultrasound for obtaining emulsions was one of the first applications in the food industry. An emulsion is a heterogeneous system formed by two immiscible liquids in which one of them is dispersed in the other in the form of small droplets with a diameter—in general—lower than 1 mm.

Li and Fogler [18, 19] originally proposed a mechanism for explaining the emulsifying capacity of ultrasound that was later confirmed by high-speed photography [20], consisting of two steps. First, the acoustic waves generate instability at the interface of the two liquids, causing large drops of oil to propel them into the aqueous phase. Second, cavitation produces microcurrents and shear forces that reduce the droplet size needed to form the emulsion [21].

There are many studies on ultrasound-assisted emulsion preparation [20, 22, 23, 24]. In general, these studies conclude that it was possible to obtain emulsions that have smaller particle size, are less polydisperse, and are more stable than by agitation by using ultrasound. For example, in a study comparing the use of ultrasound with traditional agitation [25], the application of ultrasound allowed the elaboration of a nanoemulsion of mustard oil in water with an interfacial area of 67-fold greater than that obtained mechanically. In addition, the sonicated emulsions had a narrower particle size distribution (0.82–44.6 μm) than the control emulsions (8.1–610 μm).

Due to the emulsifying capacity of ultrasounds, they are recently being used as encapsulation systems in the food industry [26]. Some high-value nutrients are encapsulated in the food matrix to avoid functional losses, organoleptic losses, undesirable reactions with other compounds, etc. Ghasemi and Abbasi [27] combined the alkalization of pH with the application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 600 W) to encapsulate oils with a high content of polyunsaturated acids in skimmed milk.

5.2 Food preservation

5.2.1 Microbial and enzyme inactivation

The main agents responsible for food spoilage are enzymes and microorganisms. Moreover, pathogenic microorganisms are responsible of food poisoning and food outbreaks, requiring therefore their control or inactivation. There are several strategies to limit their action (i.e., reducing temperature, controlling water activity, etc., of foods) and to inactivate them, mainly by heat treatments. Thermal pasteurization and sterilization are the most common technologies used for enzyme and microbial inactivation in order to obtain safe and stable food products. However, the intensity of these treatments can lead to loss of nutrients and deterioration of sensory characteristics and functional properties of food [16, 28]. Due to this, technologies which enable to inactivate those agents at lower temperatures are under evaluation being ultrasound a possibility.

Bacterial inactivation with ultrasound has been widely studied and even suggested as a possible food preservation method [29, 30, 31]. Microbial inactivation is mainly induced by the physical effects of cavitation such as shear forces, shock waves, and microcurrents that can damage cell integrity by weakening or breaking cell envelopes [32, 33]. However, its lethal effect is reduced and requires prolonged periods of time [34, 35], limiting its application as a food preservation system. Due to its low bactericidal efficacy and in order to increase its lethality, ultrasound is applied over atmospheric pressure (manosonication, MS), combined with heat (manothermosonication, MTS) and with other nonthermal technologies (pulsed electric fields, high hydrostatic pressures, UV light) [36, 37]. From all these combinations, MS and MTS showed the most promising results since vegetative cells and even bacterial spores can be inactivated at low temperatures (40°C) [32, 33, 38], as summarized in Figure 2. The possibility of inactivating vegetative cells and spores opens the way to design alternative processes to thermal pasteurization and sterilization by using MTS treatments at lower temperatures than those used in traditional thermal treatments [32, 33, 38]. However, the required ultrasound intensities to achieve several log10 cycles of microbial inactivation are still far away for its industrial application due to technical limitations.

Figure 2.

Log10 cycles of inactivation ofAeromonas hydrophila(ah),Listeria monocytogenes(lm),Staphylococcus aureus(Sa),Enterococcus faecium(Ef),Bacillus circulans(Bc) (spore), andBacillus subtilis(Bs) (spore) treated in McIlvaine buffer pH 7.0 with MS (0.2 MPa, 40°C, 450 W and 4 minutes, for spores 15 minutes*). Adapted from [31,45].

Likewise, ultrasound is also effective for inactivating enzymes, but very long processing times are required. However, when combined with heat (thermo-sonication, TS), pressure (MS), or heat and pressure (MTS), processing times can also be reduced. For example, the application of MTS is able to reduce the heat resistance of enzymes by 2–400-fold such as alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, lipase, lipoxygenase, pectin methylesterase, and polygalacturonase compared to heat treatments applied at the same temperature [32, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45]. As an example, Figure 3 shows the activity reduction of pectin methylesterase of tomato juice treated by heat, MS, and MTS treatments at 62.5°C and 1 minute. As can be observed, the MTS treatment led to a complete inactivation of the enzyme, being this effect higher than the addition of the heat and MS inactivation effects when applied separately (synergistic effect).

Figure 3.

Activity reduction of pectin methylesterase of tomato juice treated by heat, MS, and MTS treatments at 62.5°C and 1 minute (ultrasonic conditions: 20 kHz, 750 W, 0.2 MPa). Adapted from [40].

5.2.2 Microbial decontamination and surface cleaning

Cleaning and decontamination of food equipment and/or surfaces in contact with food are among the first applications of ultrasound in the food industry besides emulsification. The main phenomena responsible for its effect are cavitation and microstreaming formed in the washing liquid. The collapse of the bubbles generates high-pressure microjets that impact the surface which favor the dissolution of compounds and the release of the particles (including microorganisms) adhered to the solid. The surfaces of the solids have irregularities and pores limiting the cleaning effectivity of traditional systems. However, ultrasounds are able to get access and get a deeper cleaning enhancing also the effectiveness of chemical cleaning by favoring the release of contaminants such as oils, proteins, and even microbial biofilms, making them more accessible to chemicals [12, 46]. Nevertheless, it is important to notice that as the ultrasonic field is not uniform throughout the treatment medium, the same levels of decontamination may not be achieved throughout the whole material or surface [47].

In the food industry, ultrasonic baths can also be used to clean and decontaminate surfaces of products such as vegetables, fruit, eggs, fish, etc., but always bear in mind that in the best scenario, a microbial inactivation of 1 Log10 cycle (90% reduction of the microbial population) could be achieved. Based on this, in meat industry, water-steam-based-systems combined with ultrasound have been recently proposed for poultry carcasses decontamination [48]. Thus, Boysen and Rosenquist [49] studied the inactivation of Campylobacterfrom broiler skins after applying different physical decontamination methods. They observed that steam-ultrasound was the most effective method achieving an inactivation of 2.5 Log10 reductions, 1 Log10 extra-reduction compared with other systems. However, the carcasses appeared to be slightly boiled after the treatment. Musavian et al. [50] decontaminated broiler carcasses with ultrasound (30–40 kHz) and steam (90–94°C) combination and observed additional reduction of 1–1.4 Log10 cycles of Campylobacterafter applying 10 s of treatment. An example of this application is the SonoSteam system [51].

Regarding the cleaning of equipment surfaces, a widely known example in the food industry is the application of ultrasound for cleaning wine-aging barrels. It allows an effective cleaning even within the wood pores where spoilage microorganisms such as Brettanomycesare located, since ultrasound can remove part of the layers created by the precipitation of crystallized tartrates [52]. The additional advantage of this effect is that the aroma of the oak is maintained, reducing maintenance costs and the need to replace the barrels [53].

Finally, one of the most recent applications in terms of cleaning has been the use of ultrasound for the disintegration of bacterial biofilms generated on working surfaces of the food industry that can lead to cross-contaminant phenomena. Thus, the use of ultrasound would allow to reduce the formation or even to eliminate these biofilms, for example, in conveyor belts used for the transportation of foods inside the industry [54]. An industrial example of this application has been developed by Lubing systems [55].

Besides the ultrasound-assisted microbial decontamination, a recent study has demonstrated the potential of ultrasound for reducing the heavy metal load from foods. Condón-Abanto et al. [56] observed that the cadmium content of edible crabs (Cancer pagurus) was reduced by 23% after their immersion in water at 50°C for 40 minutes applying ultrasound (35 kHz, 200 W). The same treatment without ultrasound scarcely reduced the Cd content of 2%. These results open the possibility of reducing chemical contaminants or other chemical risks present in foods by using ultrasound as it will be discussed later on.

5.3 Mass transfer

The processes of mass transfer between two phases consist of the transfer of a certain component from one phase to another as a result of the difference in concentration between both phases. In the food industry, mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as the extraction of compounds of interest from inside the cells of a food product (sucrose, colorants, etc.), the elimination of water in processes like drying/dehydration, or the incorporation of solids as it happens when marinating and/or pickling.

5.3.1 Extraction

The traditional method for the extraction of intracellular compounds of interest for the food industry (sugar, colorants, bioactive substances such as polyphenols, etc.) consists on using an adequate solvent combined with other systems such as heat, agitation, etc. However, this technique has some disadvantages such as the high electrical consumption—becoming up to 70% of the required energy to extract a certain compound—high water requirements, and the use of toxic or contaminant solvents. For this reason, the food industry has struggled to find more profitable and eco-friendly methods for the extraction of compounds [16, 57], such as ultrasound, which improves the extraction efficiency by applying lower temperatures and shorter processing times than traditional extracting methods [58].

The extraction of aromatic compounds, antioxidants, pigments, and other organic or inorganic substances from tissues, mostly vegetal, has been widely investigated and successfully carried out by applying high-power ultrasound [59, 60, 61, 62, 63]. The application of ultrasound to a vegetable product immersed in a liquid medium can induce rapid fragmentation of the material, increasing the surface area of the solid in contact with the solvent and accelerating the mass transfer and, therefore, the extraction rate and yield [64]. Several advantages have been pointed out for the ultrasound-assisted extraction including the reduction of extraction time, energy, and the amount of solvent used and of unit operations and also a rapid return of investment [57]. As a way of example, Figure 4 shows the extraction yield of chlorophyll from spinach leaves by using or not ultrasound (20 kHz) [57]. As observed, the amount of chlorophyll extracted was fourfold higher than in the control process after 20 minutes of maceration using ultrasound and more than double than the control after 80 minutes of extraction.

Figure 4.

Total chlorophylls concentration (μg/ml) extracted from spinach leaves treated (filled bars) or not (white bars) with ultrasound (20 kHz). Adapted from [57].

Besides the recovery of compounds of interest, also the extraction of potential risky compounds for human health is under investigation like oligosaccharides from pulses or Cd from edible crabs [65, 56]. In the same direction, the use of ultrasound has been recently evaluated for reducing the acrylamide content of fried potatoes which is a carcinogenic compound. By applying a pre-frying treatment of 30 minutes by immersing potatoes in an ultrasound water bath at 35 kHz, 92.5 W/kg, and 42°C, Antunes-Rohling et al. [66] obtained a 90% reduction in acrylamide compared to potatoes directly fried and a 50% reduction compared to potatoes soaked in water but with no ultrasound applied.

Based on the showed possibilities of ultrasound for extracting compounds of interest, different semi-industrial systems have been developed which are detailed in the revision of Chemat et al. [16]. More recently, and based on the works done in the winery industry, a continuous ultrasound system has been constructed in order to improve the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from grapes [67]. Wine is a product highly appreciated for its organoleptic properties such as color, aroma, and flavor. The application of ultrasound has been studied in the wine maceration process to favor the extraction of polyphenols responsible for color [68] and in the lees (aging on lees) for the extraction of polysaccharides responsible for color stability, mouthfeel, and reduction of wine’s astringency [69].

5.3.2 Drying and dehydration

In the food industry, drying and dehydration of foods are important preserving processes where mass and energy transfer phenomena occur. They consist of removing a large part of the water from the food in order to improve the stability of the product, reducing its volume and weight and facilitating the handling and transport of the products [70, 71]. Currently, one of the most widespread techniques in the food industry is air convection dehydration. However, it is an energetically costly operation and, in some cases, requires long periods of time. In order to reduce drying times, some industrial strategies exist, such as increasing the temperature of the air, which can cause alterations in the composition and structure of foods, or increasing the air speed that might lead to the formation of a dry and impermeable layer that can inhibit the exit of humidity from the interior of the product [70].

Ultrasound has been evaluated as an alternative to traditional dehydration systems. In this case, the water removal process is improved mainly by the phenomenon known as “sponge effect” which enhances the diffusion of water from the interior of the product to the surface [72]. Nonetheless, cavitation of intracellular and extracellular water may also occur, forming new microchannels [73]. In addition, the application of ultrasound through the air generates turbulence that produces an important microstreaming at the interface between food and air which help remove surface moisture [74].

Ultrasound-assisted dehydration in food has been researched since the 1950s and 1960s, but it has been in recent years when major advances have been made since new family of piezoelectric transducers with extensive radiating surface have been developed [75]. There are two types of ultrasound application systems in food dehydration processes: by direct contact between the transducer and the food and by indirect contact through the air (airborne ultrasound systems). Contact systems, even though they are more efficient, can cause product damage, equipment development is complicated, and specific hygiene requirements are necessary. In any case, very promising results were obtained by De la Fuente-Blanco et al. [72], drying carrot cylinders achieving a faster loss of water than the usual dehydration by forced air process and obtaining a final moisture content in the product of less than 1%.

More studies have been carried out with airborne ultrasound systems, reducing drying times by 20–30% when applied at low temperatures and low air velocities [70]. For example, García-Pérez et al. [76] developed a convection drying equipment applying ultrasound to the air, in which the treatment chamber consisted of a vibratory aluminum cylinder coupled to a transducer (21.8 kHz, 75 W). In this study, they achieved a reduction of 26.7% in drying time of carrot skin samples when dried at 40°C and 0.6 m/s. The effect of air temperature (30–70°C) on the speed of drying with ultrasound was demonstrated by the same authors [77]. They obtained an increase in diffusion coefficient of 23.6% at 30°C, while at 70°C only 1.3%. These studies indicate that at either high air velocities or high temperatures, the effects of these parameters predominate over ultrasound.

In addition to improving convection drying processes, studies have also been carried out on the application of ultrasound in vacuum drying [78, 79] or in freeze-drying [80, 81] obtaining higher drying rates than the traditional process.

As it can be appreciated, the obtained results are promising; however, at present, pilot or industrial systems are scarce. The main technological challenges to address are basically reducing the overheating produced by the transducers and adapting the frequency and ultrasonic power to the working conditions, taking into account the acoustic impedance, attenuation, and absorption of the product to be dehydrated [73].

5.3.3 Marinating and pickling

Marinating and pickling are food preservation techniques used in vegetables, meat, and fish products. Brine, vinegar, or other organic acids; oil; and spices are usually used. In general, long processes are required, which involves the immobilization of the product resulting in economic costs and also potentially leading to structural damage, softening, and swelling, which might affect the quality of the product [16]. The application of high-power ultrasound between frequencies of 20 and 50 kHz has made possible to shorten pickling or brine contact times. Besides, in the case of meat such as pork loin, the water and salt content of the samples was increased (63–65% and 7–50%, respectively) when ultrasound (20 kHz, >39 W/cm2) was applied compared to brining in static mode and with mechanical agitation. With an intensity higher than 64 W/cm2, the water content of the samples after the process was even higher than that of fresh meat [82]. Improvement of water intake has been observed also in fish. Thus, a 6% higher water intake of thawed cod fillets after 48 hours of hydration than the standard process when applying ultrasound (40 kHz, 3.9 W/kg) was observed [10].

5.4 Energy transfer

Energy transfer (e.g., heating or freezing) together with mass transfer are common unit operations in the food industry. Both direct and indirect applications of ultrasound have been used to increase the energy transfer rates of traditional heating/freezing systems. Ultrasonic waves produce a direct heating of the product/medium due to the great energy released in the medium, as well as an intense agitation favoring a faster and more uniform heating of the product. On the other hand, the vibration caused by the indirect application of ultrasound accelerates the transfer of heat from traditional systems, both to release it in cooling processes and to provide it when heating.

5.4.1 Heating

The use of ultrasound to improve heating of liquid and solid foods is known since the 1960s [83]. However, scarce scientific information has been published till recent years. It has been described that ultrasound (20 kHz, 75 W) can increase the conductive heat transfer when applied in metals by 2.3- and 5.5-folds [83], becoming this effect the basis of the design of heat exchangers including ultrasound systems [83, 84]. In the case of liquid foods, the application of ultrasound of 20 kHz also improved the convection heat transfer in this case up to 25-fold in water [85]. In the case of viscous liquids such as puree, creams or soups, ultrasound not only improved the energy transfer but also the uniformity of the heating. Thus, an increase in energy transfer of 33 and 43% when heating tomato soup assisted with 45 and 450 W of ultrasound (20 kHz), respectively, was observed (Figure 5).

Figure 5.

Evolution of the temperature during the heating of tomato soup at different ultrasound (20 kHz) intensities: 0 (▲), 45 (◯), and 450 W (●).

Finally, the application of ultrasound in hot water to heat solid products resulted in a faster heat transfer, reducing the time to apply pasteurization treatments or even to cook food products and therefore getting higher quality products [16].

Some authors have studied the improvement of heating for food cooking by using ultrasound. One of the first studies was conducted by Pohlman et al. [86] who evaluated the effects of ultrasound for cooking different pieces of beef. An ultrasonic field of 22 W/cm2 was applied and compared to the traditional cooking of beef in a convection oven up to 70°C in the center. Ultrasonic cooking reduced the cooking time by 54% and the energy consumption of the process by 42%. In addition, samples cooked with ultrasound were cooked more uniformly and showed higher water retention, lower cooking losses, and lower hardness. In recent years, more studies have been conducted on this topic. More specifically, ultrasound has been used to accelerate heat transfer in the pasteurization of packaged sausages [87] and of ready-to-eat whole brown crab [88], to evaluate the frying-assisted ultrasound process of meatballs [89] and for the cooking of mortadella [90]. Even more, improvements in heat transfer have been observed at boiling water temperatures and over atmospherically pressure. Thus, 20% and up to 32% reduction in the cooking times were observed when boiling macaroni at 100°C or chickpeas at 120°C and 0.09 MPa, respectively, in an ultrasonic field of 40 kHz and 25 W/kg by using a new patented ultrasound system [91, 92].

In summary, the application of ultrasound allows to reduce the heating times by enhancing the energy transfer in liquid, viscous, and solid products and applying more uniform thermal treatments reducing the number of cold spots.

5.4.2 Freezing

Freezing is one of the oldest methods for food preservation. It involves subjecting food to temperatures lower than that of the freezing point causing the conversion of food water into ice and thereby limiting microbial growth and chemical and enzymatic reactions. When freezing speed is slow, large crystals with edges are formed in the extracellular liquid, causing the loss of water from inside the cells. This leads to dehydration, cell contraction, and partial plasmolysis; these phenomena, together with the damage caused by ice crystals that cause injuries in cell membranes, lead to water leakage after defrosting, producing the loss of food quality. On the other hand, quick freezing produces small ice crystals in the intracellular and extracellular space, resulting in less cell damage and in higher quality products [93]. Ultrasound-assisted freezing reduces treatment time by favoring both nucleation and controlled crystal growth [16]. These effects have been mainly attributed to acoustic cavitation and the microstreaming generated in the liquid as well as the microbubbles that act as nuclei of crystallization [94]. Figure 6 shows the freezing curves of 2 cm × 2 cm cylinders of meat sausages frozen in an ultrasound bath at −22°C applying or not ultrasound (40 kHz, 50 W). As can be observed, application of ultrasound reduced the freezing time and even eliminated the water-ice crystal transition phase.

Figure 6.

Temperature of sausages (thin lines) and media (thick lines) when applying (continuous lines) or not ultrasound (40 kHz, 50 W/kg) when freezing.

Several studies have been carried out on the application of ultrasound during the freezing process of foods. In most of these studies, ultrasound has been applied using ultrasound baths with the product immersed in an aqueous medium, e.g., panaria dough [95], potatoes [96], broccoli [97], apples [98], mushrooms [99], and pork loin [100]. For example, Sun et al. [101] studied the influence of ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing on the process and on the quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The application of ultrasound at 30 kHz and 175 W reduced the freezing time of 37.2%, being this ultrasound intensity the optimal, since below it the effect of ultrasound was undetectable and above it overheating was observed due to the high ultrasound intensities applied. This increase in the freezing rate resulted in an improvement in the product quality since the cooking loss (% of loss water after cooking the product) values determined were similar to those of fresh product: 7.9% in fresh product vs8.3% when ultrasound was applied.

5.4.3 Thawing

Thawing is as important as freezing in the food industry, since a large proportion of frozen foods require thawing prior to their consumption. This process must be carried out as quick as possible to avoid affecting the hygienic quality of the product, but bearing in mind that the higher the speed, the worse will be the sensory characteristics of the final product because time is required for the cells to reabsorb the released water during freezing. As it has been explained, the application of ultrasound would help to improve the transfer of energy due to the cavitation and the microstreaming generated in the liquid [96]. Some studies have been carried out in beef, pork, and codfish [102]; pork Longissimus dorsimuscle [103]; and tuna [104]. In a study carried out by Gambuteanu and Alexe [103], thawing assisted by ultrasound in samples of pork Longissimus dorsimuscle was evaluated. Experiments were performed at intensities of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 W/cm2 in a water bath at 15°C, and they were compared with thawing in air at 15°C and thawing by immersion on water at 15°C. The thawing rate was influenced by the intensity of ultrasound treatment: the higher the ultrasonic intensity, the shorter the thawing time. Thus, the thawing rates for air and water immersion were 0.16 and 0.29°C/min, respectively, whereas, for ultrasound intensities of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 W/cm2, the values were 0.62, 0.73, and 1°C/min. Therefore, the thawing time of pork samples could be reduced applying ultrasound technology. Similar conclusions were obtained by our research group in cod fillets thawed in an ultrasound water bath at 2°C (25 kHz, 14.7 W/kg), reducing 65% the time to achieve 0°C, maintaining the water holding capacity and cook loss of the fresh product, and with a better sensorial quality than the air defrosted product (Figure 7).

Figure 7.

Temperature of cod fillets (thin lines) and water (think lines) when applying (continuous lines) or not ultrasound (25 kHz, 14.7 W/kg) when thawing.

5.5 Other applications of ultrasound in the food industry

In addition to the applications already described, ultrasound technology has been evaluated and applied in the food industry to improve other processes whose result is based mainly on mechanical effects.

5.5.1 Foaming and degassing capacity

Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid medium that is often formed during the manufacture of many products, as a result of aeration or agitation of liquids, during vaporization of liquids, or due to chemical or biological reactions [105]. Mechanical methods are the most effective at removing unwanted foams during food processing, compared to antifoaming chemical agents. The use of ultrasound can be considered a mechanical method of foam removal, since it is based on the propagation of the sound waves through the foam, without affecting the liquid [106]. For this application, airborne transducers are mainly used [107].

Another increasingly widespread application of ultrasound is degassing. Liquids contain dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen. Conventionally, to degas a liquid, it is boiled or subjected to vacuum, reducing the solubility of the gases. Ultrasonic degassing has the advantage of not substantially increasing the temperature of the liquid. In the presence of an ultrasonic field, the gas bubbles begin to vibrate, coalesce, and grow, reaching a sufficient size to ascend to the liquid surface, being thus removed from the aqueous medium [16].

In a study that covers both applications, foam removal and degassing, Villamiel et al. [108] used 1-second ultrasonic pulses (20 kHz) in milk. At 20°C with 3 minutes of treatment, they managed to reduce foam by 80% with an energy consumption of 40 kJ/l. In order to eliminate the oxygen dissolved in milk, a more energetic treatment was necessary (240 kJ/l).

5.5.2 Filtration

High-power ultrasound has been applied to promote diffusion through membranes and porous materials. This improvement is attributed to the formation of microstreams generated within the liquid in the presence of high-energy ultrasonic fields. That is how it would facilitate the processes of filtration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, and reverse osmosis [109]. During membrane filtration, the flow progressively decays to a stationary state due to the polarization of the concentration, and the saturation of the filter. Ultrasound acts by increasing the flow and preventing saturation if applied during filtration or by breaking the deposit layer of solutes or cake on the filters, acting in this case as a cleaning method [16].

5.5.3 Texture modification

Texture plays a crucial role in influencing consumers’ liking and preference of meat products. This sensation is influenced by various factors including muscle type, age and cut, its water holding capacity, and the degree of maturation, among others [110]. The application of ultrasound might help to improve meat tenderness, thus obtaining better quality products. However, the effect of high-power ultrasound on meat tenderization is not entirely clear, and this is likely because there are many factors that influence its effect, such as the characteristics of the ultrasonic field, the time of exposure, the animal species, and the type of muscle, among others. Some authors state that those studies in which ultrasound application had no effect would be due to the low ultrasonic densities (0.29–1.55 W/cm2) or short treatment times (15 s) applied [111, 112, 113]. In any case, there are systems already in the market for tendering meat based on ultrasound [114].

In the case of meat products, ultrasound can improve cohesiveness between different pieces of meat [109] by promoting the release of myofibrillar proteins and gel formation. This effect is important in processes such as the production of cooked ham or cured meat products in which an adhesive protein exudate is required in order to act as a glue between the different parts during molding or stuffing [110].

5.5.4 Food cutting

Most processed foods are prepared in large quantities, often in blocks or in large sheets. For marketing and consumption, it is necessary to reduce their size, in many cases by cutting the product. For this propose, ultrasonic probes in the shape of a blade are used which vibrate at a certain ultrasonic frequency longitudinally or as a piston. When it comes into contact with food, it cuts it due to both the vibration and the sharp edge of the blade. These types of probes have been used successfully in the cutting of fragile, heterogeneous, and sticky products such as cream cakes, bread, pastries, biscuits, and cheese [16, 115].

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6. Conclusions

Although ultrasound is a well-known technology that is commonly used in several fields such as medicine or in the automobile industry, its use in the food industry is still scarce especially in the case of high-power ultrasound. However, due to its capacity to improve mass and energy transfer phenomena—which occur in numerous processes in the food industry—it might be very helpful for producing safer and higher quality products than those obtained by traditional procedures. In addition, ultrasound is considered a safe, nonpolluting, and environmentally friendly technology, which has also contributed to attract the interest of the food industry. Finally, the lower implementation cost—up to the industrial scale—of some applications compared to other nonthermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields or high hydrostatic pressures will facilitate its industrialization in some food sectors. In any case, further research is still necessary for some applications since many factors have to be considered when designing equipment and applying ultrasound treatments in the food industry in order to achieve an efficient application.

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Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support from iNOBox (Project number 281106) funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Department of Innovation Research and University of the Aragon Government and European Social Fund (ESF). L.A. gratefully acknowledges the financial support for her studies provided by the “Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional.”

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  97. 97.Xin Y et al. The effects of ultrasound-assisted freezing on the freezing time and quality of broccoli (Brassica oleraceaL. var.botrytisL.) during immersion freezing. International Journal of Refrigeration. 2014;41:82-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2013.12.016
  98. 98.Delgado AE, Zheng LY, Sun DW. Influence of ultrasound on freezing rate of immersion-frozen apples. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2009;2:263-270. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-008-0111-9
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  101. 101.Sun Q et al. Ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing accelerates the freezing process and improves the quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at different power levels. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2019;108:106-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.03.042
  102. 102.Miles CA, Morley MJ, Rendell M. High power ultrasonic thawing of frozen foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 1999;39:151-159
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  104. 104.Li X, Sun P, Ma Y, Cai L, Li J. Effect of ultrasonic thawing on the water holding capacity, physico-chemical properties, and structure of frozen tuna fish (Thunnus tonggol) myofibrillar proteins. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2019;99:5083-5091. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9752
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  115. 115.Rawson FF. An introduction to ultrasonic food cutting. In: Povey MJW, Mason TJ, editors. Ultrasound in Food Processing. London: Blackie Academic and Professional; 1998. pp. 254-269

Written By

Leire Astráin-Redín, Salomé Ciudad-Hidalgo, Javier Raso, Santiago Condón, Guillermo Cebrián and Ignacio Álvarez

Submitted: September 4th, 2019Reviewed: November 11th, 2019Published: December 30th, 2019

Entrepreneurship Education and Training
Edited by Jose C. Sanchez-Garcia,
ISBN 978-953-51-2029-2, 290 pages,
Published: March 25, 2015

New Trends in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine - Official Book of the Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine
Edited by Hideharu Hibi and Minoru Ueda,
ISBN 978-953-51-1724-7, 130 pages,
Published: September 18, 2014

Land Applications of Radar Remote Sensing
Edited by Francesco Holecz, Paolo Pasquali, Nada Milisavljevic and Damien Closson,
ISBN 978-953-51-1589-2, 318 pages,
Published: June 11, 2014

Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks
Edited by Gillian Ann Cerbu, Marc Hanewinkel, Giacomo Gerosa and Robert Jandl,
ISBN 978-953-51-1194-8, 394 pages,
Published: August 28, 2013

Abiotic Stress - Plant Responses and Applications in Agriculture
Edited by Kourosh Vahdati and Charles Leslie,
ISBN 978-953-51-1024-8, 418 pages,
Published: March 13, 2013

Ionic Liquids - New Aspects for the Future
Edited by Jun-ichi Kadokawa,
ISBN 978-953-51-0937-2, 706 pages,
Published: January 23, 2013

Exploring the Solar Wind
Edited by Marian Lazar,
ISBN 978-953-51-0339-4, 474 pages,
Published: March 21, 2012

Management of Organic Waste
Edited by Sunil Kumar and Ajay Bharti,
ISBN 978-953-307-925-7, 208 pages,
Published: February 01, 2012

Applications of Ionic Liquids in Science and Technology
Edited by Scott Handy, Middle Tennessee State University, USA,
ISBN 978-953-307-605-8, 528 pages,
Published: September 22, 2011

Artificial Neural Networks - Application
Edited by Chi Leung Patrick Hui,
ISBN 978-953-307-188-6, 598 pages,
Published: April 11, 2011

Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Advances and Biomedical Applications
Edited by Kenji Suzuki,
ISBN 978-953-307-243-2, 374 pages,
Published: April 11, 2011

Electrical Generation and Distribution Systems and Power Quality Disturbances
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-329-3, 318 pages,
Published: November 21, 2011

Modelling Simulation and Optimization
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-048-3, 720 pages,
Published: February 01, 2010

Power Quality Harmonics Analysis and Real Measurements Data
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-335-4, 290 pages,
Published: November 23, 2011

--\x3e\\n\\n

IntechOpen submits its books to be evaluated and included in Web of Science on a regular basis.

\\n"}]',published:!0,mainMedia:null},components:[{type:"htmlEditorComponent",content:'

We are pleased to announce that a selection of our books have been accepted for indexing in Thomson Reuters' ISI Web of Science's Book Citation Index (BKCI). BKCI is a part of Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) together with SCI Expanded, SSCI, AHCI and other databases. Web of Science is the world’s leading citation index with multidisciplinary content from top tier international and regional journals, conference proceedings, and has now been expanded to include books. The editorial staff at Thomson Reuters carefully reviews thousands of submissions each year. Of these, only the most influential journals, proceedings and books in the fields of science, social sciences, and arts and humanities are selected for inclusion into BKCI.

\n\n

The quality and depth of content Web of Science offers to researchers, authors, publishers, and institutions sets it apart from other research databases. The inclusion of the below-listed books in the Book Citation Index demonstrates our continued dedication to providing the most relevant and influential scientific content in a wide array of research fields within our community.

\n\n

IntechOpen books included in the Web of Science Book Citation Index

\n\n

Anopheles Mosquitoes - New Insights into Malaria Vectors

\n\n\n\n

Physics and Applications of Graphene - Theory

\n\n\n\n

Physics and Applications of Graphene - Experiments

\n\n\n\n

Comprehensive Survey of International Soybean Research - Genetics, Physiology, Agronomy and Nitrogen Relationships

\n\n\n\n

Olive Oil - Constituents, Quality, Health Properties and Bioconversions

\n\n\n\n

Storage Stability of Fuels

\n\n\n\n

Brain-Computer Interface Systems - Recent Progress and Future Prospects

\n\n\n\n

Smoothing, Filtering and Prediction: Estimating the Past, Present and Future

\n\n\n\x3c!--

More Titles

Biodiversity in Ecosystems - Linking Structure and Function
Edited by Yueh-Hsin Lo, Juan A. Blanco and Shovonlal Roy,
ISBN 978-953-51-2028-5, 658 pages,
Published: April 17, 2015

Entrepreneurship Education and Training
Edited by Jose C. Sanchez-Garcia,
ISBN 978-953-51-2029-2, 290 pages,
Published: March 25, 2015

New Trends in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine - Official Book of the Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine
Edited by Hideharu Hibi and Minoru Ueda,
ISBN 978-953-51-1724-7, 130 pages,
Published: September 18, 2014

Land Applications of Radar Remote Sensing
Edited by Francesco Holecz, Paolo Pasquali, Nada Milisavljevic and Damien Closson,
ISBN 978-953-51-1589-2, 318 pages,
Published: June 11, 2014

Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks
Edited by Gillian Ann Cerbu, Marc Hanewinkel, Giacomo Gerosa and Robert Jandl,
ISBN 978-953-51-1194-8, 394 pages,
Published: August 28, 2013

Abiotic Stress - Plant Responses and Applications in Agriculture
Edited by Kourosh Vahdati and Charles Leslie,
ISBN 978-953-51-1024-8, 418 pages,
Published: March 13, 2013

Ionic Liquids - New Aspects for the Future
Edited by Jun-ichi Kadokawa,
ISBN 978-953-51-0937-2, 706 pages,
Published: January 23, 2013

Exploring the Solar Wind
Edited by Marian Lazar,
ISBN 978-953-51-0339-4, 474 pages,
Published: March 21, 2012

Management of Organic Waste
Edited by Sunil Kumar and Ajay Bharti,
ISBN 978-953-307-925-7, 208 pages,
Published: February 01, 2012

Applications of Ionic Liquids in Science and Technology
Edited by Scott Handy, Middle Tennessee State University, USA,
ISBN 978-953-307-605-8, 528 pages,
Published: September 22, 2011

Artificial Neural Networks - Application
Edited by Chi Leung Patrick Hui,
ISBN 978-953-307-188-6, 598 pages,
Published: April 11, 2011

Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Advances and Biomedical Applications
Edited by Kenji Suzuki,
ISBN 978-953-307-243-2, 374 pages,
Published: April 11, 2011

Electrical Generation and Distribution Systems and Power Quality Disturbances
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-329-3, 318 pages,
Published: November 21, 2011

Modelling Simulation and Optimization
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-048-3, 720 pages,
Published: February 01, 2010

Power Quality Harmonics Analysis and Real Measurements Data
Edited by Gregorio Romero Rey and Luisa Martinez Muneta,
ISBN 978-953-307-335-4, 290 pages,
Published: November 23, 2011

--\x3e\n\n

IntechOpen submits its books to be evaluated and included in Web of Science on a regular basis.

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\r\n\tRotating machines, such as motors, compressors, turbines, and generators, are some of the most widely used machines with the main utilizations of energy conversion, power generation, fluid transportation, and propulsion, etc. We can often see the beautiful scenery of many wind turbines rotating on the mountain, plains, and sea. At present, with the environmental degradation and energy crisis becoming more and more serious, the development and utilization of renewable clean energy have attracted widespread attention in the world. Therefore, the research on rotating machines has some new characteristics and development directions. Meanwhile, high precision CFD technology and advanced wind tunnel test technology are also widely used in rotating machines research.

\r\n

\r\n\tIn this book, we will focus on the recent research progress and development of rotating machines technology. The latest original research articles, as well as review articles on the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experiment technology for the performance improvement and structural optimization of rotating machines, will be introduced.

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1. Introduction

Ultrasound is considered an emerging technology in the food industry that is gaining interest due to its potential to improve several process including mass and energy transfer processes among others. It also enables to obtain safer and higher quality products than with traditional procedures. Furthermore, it should be remarked that it is also considered a safe, nonpolluting and environmentally friendly technology [1].

Ultrasonic technology consists of the application of mechanical waves with frequency over the threshold of human hearing (>16 kHz) [2]. Depending on its frequency and intensity, the ultrasonic spectrum can be further divided into low-frequency (20–100 kHz) high-power (>1 W/cm2) ultrasound and high-frequency (>100 kHz) low-power (<1 W/cm2) ultrasound. Low-power ultrasound is applied for noninvasive and nondestructive analyses, and it is mainly used in other areas such as medicine and cosmetics. In the food industry, this type of ultrasonic waves is basically used for process and quality control (e.g., fluid flow and container filling control, location of foreign bodies, or evaluation of the homogenization and/or emulsification efficiency). In contrast, high-power ultrasound is able to produce changes in the material or process to which they are applied, and it is used in a large variety of processes in the food industry (e.g., surface cleaning and decontamination, microbial and enzymatic inactivation, degassing, defoaming, and improvement of mass transfer, among others). Therefore, high-power ultrasound is the one of great interest in the food industry, and in this chapter, it will be discussed in more detail.

2. Effects of ultrasound in food matrices mechanism of action

Ultrasonic sound waves propagate through air, water, and solid media, generating pressure variations that cause the vibration of particles in the medium. The effects of the application of high-power ultrasound in food products are therefore dependent on the medium of propagation (liquid, solid or gas) and also on the parameters of the process such as frequency, intensity, pressure, and temperature, among others. Applying ultrasound in liquid medium is the simplest and the most common process in the food industry. Cavitation is the main phenomenon responsible of ultrasound effects when applied to a liquid. Basically, cavitation occurs when the microbubbles present in the liquid increase in size as a result of the cycles of high and low pressure generated by the ultrasonic waves until they become unstable and collapse releasing a large amount of energy (theoretically up to 5000 K and 1000 atm) [1]. As a consequence, different effects are generated. These can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Within the physical effects, microjets and microstreaming phenomena are the most relevant ones. Microjets are high-pressure water streams projected to the surface of solids that lead to the formation of pores and surface erosion, causing the release of material into the medium depending on the intensity of the jets. By contrast, microstreaming occurs in the middle of the surrounding liquid, and when its speed is high enough, it can break membrane cells, release intracellular enzymes, etc. [3]. These physical effects are more likely to occur at low frequencies (20–40 kHz) when the number of cavitation spots is low but the energy associated to them is higher. At higher frequencies (80–100 kHz), the number of spots is higher, but bubble size is smaller, so the energy released is lower and the prevalent effects are mainly chemical [4]. The primary radicals that are generated by ultrasound are H• and •OH, which can be then recombined to form other reactive species (H2, H2O2) [5]. Therefore, depending on both the ultrasound intensity and, mainly, frequency, different effects, physical or chemical, are produced.

On the other hand, when an ultrasonic wave passes through a solid medium, it produces a series of alternating contractions and expansions, a phenomenon known as the “sponge effect,” which facilitates the transfer of matter with the medium surrounding the solid [6]. Moreover, this mechanical stress can cause the formation of microchannels in the interior of the solid, also favoring mass transfer processes. In this case, it is unlikely that the cavitation phenomenon would occur in the liquid phase of the solid matrix [7].

Finally, although the application of high-intensity ultrasound is more complicated in gas medium, its effects on the solid/gas interface are particularly interesting, including pressure variation, oscillating flow, and microstreams [8]. The development of efficient ultrasonic systems to be applied in for gas medium is highly limited by the power loss that occurs when sound waves are propagating through air and by the mismatch between acoustic impedances of gases and solids or liquids [9]. As it will be discussed below, its main application is the improvement of food dehydration processes and defoaming.

3. Factors affecting cavitation

In the food industry, ultrasound is applied trough a liquid media in most applications, becoming cavitation the main mechanisms of action in these processes, as pointed out above. However, in order to apply ultrasound effectively to these food matrices, it is necessary to consider a group of factors influencing the cavitation phenomenon, including the characteristics of the ultrasound source (frequency, amplitude, ultrasonic supplier), characteristics of the treatment medium (solid particles, gas bubbles, viscosity), and treatment conditions (pressure and temperature) [2]. Regarding the characteristics of ultrasound source, the frequency and amplitude are the most important parameters that condition the effects of the treatment. As stated above, frequency determines the size of the bubbles and, thus, the intensity of the implosion. Amplitude is directly related to the amount of energy supplied to the system and the ultrasonic intensity [3]. At high amplitudes, the oscillation of the bubbles is higher, being the implosion more powerful and leading to further effects derived from cavitation. However, depending on the desired effects, this may not always be of interest, and therefore it is essential to optimize the treatment parameters. For example, for hydrating thawed cod fillets, the highest weight gain (18%) of fillets after 48 hours of hydration was observed when applying the 10% of the power of an ultrasound system of 35 kHz and 200 W. When ultrasound was working at the maximum amplitude of the system (100%), 12% of weight gain was observed, which was a lower value than that of the control process without using ultrasound (14%) [10]. As it will be discussed later on, both frequency and amplitude condition the ultrasonic supplier which defines the way of application of ultrasound to the product and its effects.

Besides the state of the treatment medium (solid, liquid or gas), solid particles, gas bubbles, and viscosity also influence cavitation. The presence of solid particles and gas bubbles act as nucleation points which enhance the formation of bubbles reducing the effects of cavitation. Regarding the viscosity of the medium, bubble formation is more difficult the higher the viscosity of the medium is, but the implosion is more powerful. Moreover, ultrasound has interesting effects in viscous products in order to improve energy transfer as it will be discussed below.

Finally, temperature and static pressure are key factors conditioning cavitation which are modified depending on the application. Thus, the increment of temperature reduces the viscosity of the medium and raises the vapor pressure enabling bubble formation. However, the amount of vapor inside the bubbles increases with temperature, producing the cushioning of the collapse and leading to a lower intensity of cavitation. Therefore, it is considered that there is an optimal temperature at which acoustic cavitation is maximum [11]. On the contrary, when pressure increases, cavitation is hindered, but when the implosion happens, the energy released is considerably higher. Based on these effects of temperature and pressure, two processes have been defined: manosonication (MS) and manothermosonication (MTS) which have been shown to offer new possibilities of ultrasound at temperatures near or even above 100°C as it will be commented later on.

In summary, many factors have to be considered when designing ultrasound equipment and processes in the food industry in order to secure an efficient application.

4. Basic ultrasound systems used in the food industry

Since the application of ultrasound in the food industry is very dependent on the ultrasound supplier, it is worthy to consider this point.

There are different ultrasound systems for food applications depending on the treatment medium and the desired effect. It is essential to achieve a successful fit between application system and treatment medium in order to be able to transfer the maximum amount of acoustic energy to the medium. As indicated, the application of ultrasound through liquid medium is the most used in the food industry. For this application, commercial equipment can be divided into two types: ultrasound water baths (indirect application) and probes or horns (direct application). Ultrasonic water baths are widely used due to their lower price and easy maintenance. They consist of a tank to which one or more piezoelectric transducers (40–130 kHz) are connected at the bottom or at the sides and the generated sound waves are propagated through the water or other liquid medium in which the food product is immersed (Figure 1(a)) [12]. The ultrasonic intensity is low (0.1–1 W/cm2), and the treatment is less homogeneous throughout the volume due to the formation of nodes [11]. In the food industry, this type of equipment has been used for surface cleaning, degassing, enzymatic and microbial inactivation, improvement of mass transfer, etc. [13]. On the other hand, horn or probe is a direct system in which the food product is in contact to the ultrasound supplier. These equipment allow to apply higher intensities (>5 W/cm2) than water baths, but they are more expensive. In these systems, three parts can be differenced (Figure 1(b)): the transducer, the amplifier of the ultrasonic signal, and the horn. The tip of the horn has to be introduced into the sonication medium, so this design is mainly used for treating liquid foods, but application in solids has also been described [14, 15]. Depending on the shape of the horn, its application will be determined and used for cell disruption, homogenization, cutting of soft products, etc. [16].

Figure 1.

Ultrasound generation systems: (a) ultrasonic bath, (b) probe or horn, and (c) airborne transducer.

The equipment developed for the application of ultrasound through the air (called airborne) is less common due to the difficulty of its design. The type of transducer used for this application differs depending on the application: stepped plate, ribbed plate, stepped-ribbed plate, and cylindrical radiator [1, 13, 17]. The basic structure is a piezoelectric transducer in sandwich configuration and an amplifier or horn (Figure 1(c)). The horn is attached to a radiator which vibrates, and due to its surface, the resistance increases, and the differences in impedance between the transducer and medium are reduced. This kind of systems is very well described in the works of Gallego-Juárez et al. [1] and Charoux et al. [17], among other publications.

5. Applications of high-power ultrasound in the food industry

In recent years, numerous applications of high-power ultrasound have been developed in food processing, including product quality control, emulsification, food preservation, and improvement of mass and energy transfer processes. Some of these applications are summarized in this part of the chapter.

5.1 Emulsion formation

The use of ultrasound for obtaining emulsions was one of the first applications in the food industry. An emulsion is a heterogeneous system formed by two immiscible liquids in which one of them is dispersed in the other in the form of small droplets with a diameter—in general—lower than 1 mm.

Li and Fogler [18, 19] originally proposed a mechanism for explaining the emulsifying capacity of ultrasound that was later confirmed by high-speed photography [20], consisting of two steps. First, the acoustic waves generate instability at the interface of the two liquids, causing large drops of oil to propel them into the aqueous phase. Second, cavitation produces microcurrents and shear forces that reduce the droplet size needed to form the emulsion [21].

There are many studies on ultrasound-assisted emulsion preparation [20, 22, 23, 24]. In general, these studies conclude that it was possible to obtain emulsions that have smaller particle size, are less polydisperse, and are more stable than by agitation by using ultrasound. For example, in a study comparing the use of ultrasound with traditional agitation [25], the application of ultrasound allowed the elaboration of a nanoemulsion of mustard oil in water with an interfacial area of 67-fold greater than that obtained mechanically. In addition, the sonicated emulsions had a narrower particle size distribution (0.82–44.6 μm) than the control emulsions (8.1–610 μm).

Due to the emulsifying capacity of ultrasounds, they are recently being used as encapsulation systems in the food industry [26]. Some high-value nutrients are encapsulated in the food matrix to avoid functional losses, organoleptic losses, undesirable reactions with other compounds, etc. Ghasemi and Abbasi [27] combined the alkalization of pH with the application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 600 W) to encapsulate oils with a high content of polyunsaturated acids in skimmed milk.

5.2 Food preservation

5.2.1 Microbial and enzyme inactivation

The main agents responsible for food spoilage are enzymes and microorganisms. Moreover, pathogenic microorganisms are responsible of food poisoning and food outbreaks, requiring therefore their control or inactivation. There are several strategies to limit their action (i.e., reducing temperature, controlling water activity, etc., of foods) and to inactivate them, mainly by heat treatments. Thermal pasteurization and sterilization are the most common technologies used for enzyme and microbial inactivation in order to obtain safe and stable food products. However, the intensity of these treatments can lead to loss of nutrients and deterioration of sensory characteristics and functional properties of food [16, 28]. Due to this, technologies which enable to inactivate those agents at lower temperatures are under evaluation being ultrasound a possibility.

Bacterial inactivation with ultrasound has been widely studied and even suggested as a possible food preservation method [29, 30, 31]. Microbial inactivation is mainly induced by the physical effects of cavitation such as shear forces, shock waves, and microcurrents that can damage cell integrity by weakening or breaking cell envelopes [32, 33]. However, its lethal effect is reduced and requires prolonged periods of time [34, 35], limiting its application as a food preservation system. Due to its low bactericidal efficacy and in order to increase its lethality, ultrasound is applied over atmospheric pressure (manosonication, MS), combined with heat (manothermosonication, MTS) and with other nonthermal technologies (pulsed electric fields, high hydrostatic pressures, UV light) [36, 37]. From all these combinations, MS and MTS showed the most promising results since vegetative cells and even bacterial spores can be inactivated at low temperatures (40°C) [32, 33, 38], as summarized in Figure 2. The possibility of inactivating vegetative cells and spores opens the way to design alternative processes to thermal pasteurization and sterilization by using MTS treatments at lower temperatures than those used in traditional thermal treatments [32, 33, 38]. However, the required ultrasound intensities to achieve several log10 cycles of microbial inactivation are still far away for its industrial application due to technical limitations.

Figure 2.

Log10 cycles of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila (ah), Listeria monocytogenes (lm), Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Enterococcus faecium (Ef), Bacillus circulans (Bc) (spore), and Bacillus subtilis (Bs) (spore) treated in McIlvaine buffer pH 7.0 with MS (0.2 MPa, 40°C, 450 W and 4 minutes, for spores 15 minutes*). Adapted from [31, 45].

Likewise, ultrasound is also effective for inactivating enzymes, but very long processing times are required. However, when combined with heat (thermo-sonication, TS), pressure (MS), or heat and pressure (MTS), processing times can also be reduced. For example, the application of MTS is able to reduce the heat resistance of enzymes by 2–400-fold such as alkaline phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, lipase, lipoxygenase, pectin methylesterase, and polygalacturonase compared to heat treatments applied at the same temperature [32, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45]. As an example, Figure 3 shows the activity reduction of pectin methylesterase of tomato juice treated by heat, MS, and MTS treatments at 62.5°C and 1 minute. As can be observed, the MTS treatment led to a complete inactivation of the enzyme, being this effect higher than the addition of the heat and MS inactivation effects when applied separately (synergistic effect).

Figure 3.

Activity reduction of pectin methylesterase of tomato juice treated by heat, MS, and MTS treatments at 62.5°C and 1 minute (ultrasonic conditions: 20 kHz, 750 W, 0.2 MPa). Adapted from [40].

5.2.2 Microbial decontamination and surface cleaning

Cleaning and decontamination of food equipment and/or surfaces in contact with food are among the first applications of ultrasound in the food industry besides emulsification. The main phenomena responsible for its effect are cavitation and microstreaming formed in the washing liquid. The collapse of the bubbles generates high-pressure microjets that impact the surface which favor the dissolution of compounds and the release of the particles (including microorganisms) adhered to the solid. The surfaces of the solids have irregularities and pores limiting the cleaning effectivity of traditional systems. However, ultrasounds are able to get access and get a deeper cleaning enhancing also the effectiveness of chemical cleaning by favoring the release of contaminants such as oils, proteins, and even microbial biofilms, making them more accessible to chemicals [12, 46]. Nevertheless, it is important to notice that as the ultrasonic field is not uniform throughout the treatment medium, the same levels of decontamination may not be achieved throughout the whole material or surface [47].

In the food industry, ultrasonic baths can also be used to clean and decontaminate surfaces of products such as vegetables, fruit, eggs, fish, etc., but always bear in mind that in the best scenario, a microbial inactivation of 1 Log10 cycle (90% reduction of the microbial population) could be achieved. Based on this, in meat industry, water-steam-based-systems combined with ultrasound have been recently proposed for poultry carcasses decontamination [48]. Thus, Boysen and Rosenquist [49] studied the inactivation of Campylobacter from broiler skins after applying different physical decontamination methods. They observed that steam-ultrasound was the most effective method achieving an inactivation of 2.5 Log10 reductions, 1 Log10 extra-reduction compared with other systems. However, the carcasses appeared to be slightly boiled after the treatment. Musavian et al. [50] decontaminated broiler carcasses with ultrasound (30–40 kHz) and steam (90–94°C) combination and observed additional reduction of 1–1.4 Log10 cycles of Campylobacter after applying 10 s of treatment. An example of this application is the SonoSteam system [51].

Regarding the cleaning of equipment surfaces, a widely known example in the food industry is the application of ultrasound for cleaning wine-aging barrels. It allows an effective cleaning even within the wood pores where spoilage microorganisms such as Brettanomyces are located, since ultrasound can remove part of the layers created by the precipitation of crystallized tartrates [52]. The additional advantage of this effect is that the aroma of the oak is maintained, reducing maintenance costs and the need to replace the barrels [53].

Finally, one of the most recent applications in terms of cleaning has been the use of ultrasound for the disintegration of bacterial biofilms generated on working surfaces of the food industry that can lead to cross-contaminant phenomena. Thus, the use of ultrasound would allow to reduce the formation or even to eliminate these biofilms, for example, in conveyor belts used for the transportation of foods inside the industry [54]. An industrial example of this application has been developed by Lubing systems [55].

Besides the ultrasound-assisted microbial decontamination, a recent study has demonstrated the potential of ultrasound for reducing the heavy metal load from foods. Condón-Abanto et al. [56] observed that the cadmium content of edible crabs (Cancer pagurus) was reduced by 23% after their immersion in water at 50°C for 40 minutes applying ultrasound (35 kHz, 200 W). The same treatment without ultrasound scarcely reduced the Cd content of 2%. These results open the possibility of reducing chemical contaminants or other chemical risks present in foods by using ultrasound as it will be discussed later on.

5.3 Mass transfer

The processes of mass transfer between two phases consist of the transfer of a certain component from one phase to another as a result of the difference in concentration between both phases. In the food industry, mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as the extraction of compounds of interest from inside the cells of a food product (sucrose, colorants, etc.), the elimination of water in processes like drying/dehydration, or the incorporation of solids as it happens when marinating and/or pickling.

5.3.1 Extraction

The traditional method for the extraction of intracellular compounds of interest for the food industry (sugar, colorants, bioactive substances such as polyphenols, etc.) consists on using an adequate solvent combined with other systems such as heat, agitation, etc. However, this technique has some disadvantages such as the high electrical consumption—becoming up to 70% of the required energy to extract a certain compound—high water requirements, and the use of toxic or contaminant solvents. For this reason, the food industry has struggled to find more profitable and eco-friendly methods for the extraction of compounds [16, 57], such as ultrasound, which improves the extraction efficiency by applying lower temperatures and shorter processing times than traditional extracting methods [58].

The extraction of aromatic compounds, antioxidants, pigments, and other organic or inorganic substances from tissues, mostly vegetal, has been widely investigated and successfully carried out by applying high-power ultrasound [59, 60, 61, 62, 63]. The application of ultrasound to a vegetable product immersed in a liquid medium can induce rapid fragmentation of the material, increasing the surface area of the solid in contact with the solvent and accelerating the mass transfer and, therefore, the extraction rate and yield [64]. Several advantages have been pointed out for the ultrasound-assisted extraction including the reduction of extraction time, energy, and the amount of solvent used and of unit operations and also a rapid return of investment [57]. As a way of example, Figure 4 shows the extraction yield of chlorophyll from spinach leaves by using or not ultrasound (20 kHz) [57]. As observed, the amount of chlorophyll extracted was fourfold higher than in the control process after 20 minutes of maceration using ultrasound and more than double than the control after 80 minutes of extraction.

Figure 4.

Total chlorophylls concentration (μg/ml) extracted from spinach leaves treated (filled bars) or not (white bars) with ultrasound (20 kHz). Adapted from [57].

Besides the recovery of compounds of interest, also the extraction of potential risky compounds for human health is under investigation like oligosaccharides from pulses or Cd from edible crabs [65, 56]. In the same direction, the use of ultrasound has been recently evaluated for reducing the acrylamide content of fried potatoes which is a carcinogenic compound. By applying a pre-frying treatment of 30 minutes by immersing potatoes in an ultrasound water bath at 35 kHz, 92.5 W/kg, and 42°C, Antunes-Rohling et al. [66] obtained a 90% reduction in acrylamide compared to potatoes directly fried and a 50% reduction compared to potatoes soaked in water but with no ultrasound applied.

Based on the showed possibilities of ultrasound for extracting compounds of interest, different semi-industrial systems have been developed which are detailed in the revision of Chemat et al. [16]. More recently, and based on the works done in the winery industry, a continuous ultrasound system has been constructed in order to improve the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from grapes [67]. Wine is a product highly appreciated for its organoleptic properties such as color, aroma, and flavor. The application of ultrasound has been studied in the wine maceration process to favor the extraction of polyphenols responsible for color [68] and in the lees (aging on lees) for the extraction of polysaccharides responsible for color stability, mouthfeel, and reduction of wine’s astringency [69].

5.3.2 Drying and dehydration

In the food industry, drying and dehydration of foods are important preserving processes where mass and energy transfer phenomena occur. They consist of removing a large part of the water from the food in order to improve the stability of the product, reducing its volume and weight and facilitating the handling and transport of the products [70, 71]. Currently, one of the most widespread techniques in the food industry is air convection dehydration. However, it is an energetically costly operation and, in some cases, requires long periods of time. In order to reduce drying times, some industrial strategies exist, such as increasing the temperature of the air, which can cause alterations in the composition and structure of foods, or increasing the air speed that might lead to the formation of a dry and impermeable layer that can inhibit the exit of humidity from the interior of the product [70].

Ultrasound has been evaluated as an alternative to traditional dehydration systems. In this case, the water removal process is improved mainly by the phenomenon known as “sponge effect” which enhances the diffusion of water from the interior of the product to the surface [72]. Nonetheless, cavitation of intracellular and extracellular water may also occur, forming new microchannels [73]. In addition, the application of ultrasound through the air generates turbulence that produces an important microstreaming at the interface between food and air which help remove surface moisture [74].

Ultrasound-assisted dehydration in food has been researched since the 1950s and 1960s, but it has been in recent years when major advances have been made since new family of piezoelectric transducers with extensive radiating surface have been developed [75]. There are two types of ultrasound application systems in food dehydration processes: by direct contact between the transducer and the food and by indirect contact through the air (airborne ultrasound systems). Contact systems, even though they are more efficient, can cause product damage, equipment development is complicated, and specific hygiene requirements are necessary. In any case, very promising results were obtained by De la Fuente-Blanco et al. [72], drying carrot cylinders achieving a faster loss of water than the usual dehydration by forced air process and obtaining a final moisture content in the product of less than 1%.

More studies have been carried out with airborne ultrasound systems, reducing drying times by 20–30% when applied at low temperatures and low air velocities [70]. For example, García-Pérez et al. [76] developed a convection drying equipment applying ultrasound to the air, in which the treatment chamber consisted of a vibratory aluminum cylinder coupled to a transducer (21.8 kHz, 75 W). In this study, they achieved a reduction of 26.7% in drying time of carrot skin samples when dried at 40°C and 0.6 m/s. The effect of air temperature (30–70°C) on the speed of drying with ultrasound was demonstrated by the same authors [77]. They obtained an increase in diffusion coefficient of 23.6% at 30°C, while at 70°C only 1.3%. These studies indicate that at either high air velocities or high temperatures, the effects of these parameters predominate over ultrasound.

In addition to improving convection drying processes, studies have also been carried out on the application of ultrasound in vacuum drying [78, 79] or in freeze-drying [80, 81] obtaining higher drying rates than the traditional process.

As it can be appreciated, the obtained results are promising; however, at present, pilot or industrial systems are scarce. The main technological challenges to address are basically reducing the overheating produced by the transducers and adapting the frequency and ultrasonic power to the working conditions, taking into account the acoustic impedance, attenuation, and absorption of the product to be dehydrated [73].

5.3.3 Marinating and pickling

Marinating and pickling are food preservation techniques used in vegetables, meat, and fish products. Brine, vinegar, or other organic acids; oil; and spices are usually used. In general, long processes are required, which involves the immobilization of the product resulting in economic costs and also potentially leading to structural damage, softening, and swelling, which might affect the quality of the product [16]. The application of high-power ultrasound between frequencies of 20 and 50 kHz has made possible to shorten pickling or brine contact times. Besides, in the case of meat such as pork loin, the water and salt content of the samples was increased (63–65% and 7–50%, respectively) when ultrasound (20 kHz, >39 W/cm2) was applied compared to brining in static mode and with mechanical agitation. With an intensity higher than 64 W/cm2, the water content of the samples after the process was even higher than that of fresh meat [82]. Improvement of water intake has been observed also in fish. Thus, a 6% higher water intake of thawed cod fillets after 48 hours of hydration than the standard process when applying ultrasound (40 kHz, 3.9 W/kg) was observed [10].

5.4 Energy transfer

Energy transfer (e.g., heating or freezing) together with mass transfer are common unit operations in the food industry. Both direct and indirect applications of ultrasound have been used to increase the energy transfer rates of traditional heating/freezing systems. Ultrasonic waves produce a direct heating of the product/medium due to the great energy released in the medium, as well as an intense agitation favoring a faster and more uniform heating of the product. On the other hand, the vibration caused by the indirect application of ultrasound accelerates the transfer of heat from traditional systems, both to release it in cooling processes and to provide it when heating.

5.4.1 Heating

The use of ultrasound to improve heating of liquid and solid foods is known since the 1960s [83]. However, scarce scientific information has been published till recent years. It has been described that ultrasound (20 kHz, 75 W) can increase the conductive heat transfer when applied in metals by 2.3- and 5.5-folds [83], becoming this effect the basis of the design of heat exchangers including ultrasound systems [83, 84]. In the case of liquid foods, the application of ultrasound of 20 kHz also improved the convection heat transfer in this case up to 25-fold in water [85]. In the case of viscous liquids such as puree, creams or soups, ultrasound not only improved the energy transfer but also the uniformity of the heating. Thus, an increase in energy transfer of 33 and 43% when heating tomato soup assisted with 45 and 450 W of ultrasound (20 kHz), respectively, was observed (Figure 5).

Figure 5.

Evolution of the temperature during the heating of tomato soup at different ultrasound (20 kHz) intensities: 0 (▲), 45 (◯), and 450 W (●).

Finally, the application of ultrasound in hot water to heat solid products resulted in a faster heat transfer, reducing the time to apply pasteurization treatments or even to cook food products and therefore getting higher quality products [16].

Some authors have studied the improvement of heating for food cooking by using ultrasound. One of the first studies was conducted by Pohlman et al. [86] who evaluated the effects of ultrasound for cooking different pieces of beef. An ultrasonic field of 22 W/cm2 was applied and compared to the traditional cooking of beef in a convection oven up to 70°C in the center. Ultrasonic cooking reduced the cooking time by 54% and the energy consumption of the process by 42%. In addition, samples cooked with ultrasound were cooked more uniformly and showed higher water retention, lower cooking losses, and lower hardness. In recent years, more studies have been conducted on this topic. More specifically, ultrasound has been used to accelerate heat transfer in the pasteurization of packaged sausages [87] and of ready-to-eat whole brown crab [88], to evaluate the frying-assisted ultrasound process of meatballs [89] and for the cooking of mortadella [90]. Even more, improvements in heat transfer have been observed at boiling water temperatures and over atmospherically pressure. Thus, 20% and up to 32% reduction in the cooking times were observed when boiling macaroni at 100°C or chickpeas at 120°C and 0.09 MPa, respectively, in an ultrasonic field of 40 kHz and 25 W/kg by using a new patented ultrasound system [91, 92].

In summary, the application of ultrasound allows to reduce the heating times by enhancing the energy transfer in liquid, viscous, and solid products and applying more uniform thermal treatments reducing the number of cold spots.

5.4.2 Freezing

Freezing is one of the oldest methods for food preservation. It involves subjecting food to temperatures lower than that of the freezing point causing the conversion of food water into ice and thereby limiting microbial growth and chemical and enzymatic reactions. When freezing speed is slow, large crystals with edges are formed in the extracellular liquid, causing the loss of water from inside the cells. This leads to dehydration, cell contraction, and partial plasmolysis; these phenomena, together with the damage caused by ice crystals that cause injuries in cell membranes, lead to water leakage after defrosting, producing the loss of food quality. On the other hand, quick freezing produces small ice crystals in the intracellular and extracellular space, resulting in less cell damage and in higher quality products [93]. Ultrasound-assisted freezing reduces treatment time by favoring both nucleation and controlled crystal growth [16]. These effects have been mainly attributed to acoustic cavitation and the microstreaming generated in the liquid as well as the microbubbles that act as nuclei of crystallization [94]. Figure 6 shows the freezing curves of 2 cm × 2 cm cylinders of meat sausages frozen in an ultrasound bath at −22°C applying or not ultrasound (40 kHz, 50 W). As can be observed, application of ultrasound reduced the freezing time and even eliminated the water-ice crystal transition phase.

Figure 6.

Temperature of sausages (thin lines) and media (thick lines) when applying (continuous lines) or not ultrasound (40 kHz, 50 W/kg) when freezing.

Several studies have been carried out on the application of ultrasound during the freezing process of foods. In most of these studies, ultrasound has been applied using ultrasound baths with the product immersed in an aqueous medium, e.g., panaria dough [95], potatoes [96], broccoli [97], apples [98], mushrooms [99], and pork loin [100]. For example, Sun et al. [101] studied the influence of ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing on the process and on the quality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The application of ultrasound at 30 kHz and 175 W reduced the freezing time of 37.2%, being this ultrasound intensity the optimal, since below it the effect of ultrasound was undetectable and above it overheating was observed due to the high ultrasound intensities applied. This increase in the freezing rate resulted in an improvement in the product quality since the cooking loss (% of loss water after cooking the product) values determined were similar to those of fresh product: 7.9% in fresh product vs 8.3% when ultrasound was applied.

5.4.3 Thawing

Thawing is as important as freezing in the food industry, since a large proportion of frozen foods require thawing prior to their consumption. This process must be carried out as quick as possible to avoid affecting the hygienic quality of the product, but bearing in mind that the higher the speed, the worse will be the sensory characteristics of the final product because time is required for the cells to reabsorb the released water during freezing. As it has been explained, the application of ultrasound would help to improve the transfer of energy due to the cavitation and the microstreaming generated in the liquid [96]. Some studies have been carried out in beef, pork, and codfish [102]; pork Longissimus dorsi muscle [103]; and tuna [104]. In a study carried out by Gambuteanu and Alexe [103], thawing assisted by ultrasound in samples of pork Longissimus dorsi muscle was evaluated. Experiments were performed at intensities of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 W/cm2 in a water bath at 15°C, and they were compared with thawing in air at 15°C and thawing by immersion on water at 15°C. The thawing rate was influenced by the intensity of ultrasound treatment: the higher the ultrasonic intensity, the shorter the thawing time. Thus, the thawing rates for air and water immersion were 0.16 and 0.29°C/min, respectively, whereas, for ultrasound intensities of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 W/cm2, the values were 0.62, 0.73, and 1°C/min. Therefore, the thawing time of pork samples could be reduced applying ultrasound technology. Similar conclusions were obtained by our research group in cod fillets thawed in an ultrasound water bath at 2°C (25 kHz, 14.7 W/kg), reducing 65% the time to achieve 0°C, maintaining the water holding capacity and cook loss of the fresh product, and with a better sensorial quality than the air defrosted product (Figure 7).

Figure 7.

Temperature of cod fillets (thin lines) and water (think lines) when applying (continuous lines) or not ultrasound (25 kHz, 14.7 W/kg) when thawing.

5.5 Other applications of ultrasound in the food industry

In addition to the applications already described, ultrasound technology has been evaluated and applied in the food industry to improve other processes whose result is based mainly on mechanical effects.

5.5.1 Foaming and degassing capacity

Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid medium that is often formed during the manufacture of many products, as a result of aeration or agitation of liquids, during vaporization of liquids, or due to chemical or biological reactions [105]. Mechanical methods are the most effective at removing unwanted foams during food processing, compared to antifoaming chemical agents. The use of ultrasound can be considered a mechanical method of foam removal, since it is based on the propagation of the sound waves through the foam, without affecting the liquid [106]. For this application, airborne transducers are mainly used [107].

Another increasingly widespread application of ultrasound is degassing. Liquids contain dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen. Conventionally, to degas a liquid, it is boiled or subjected to vacuum, reducing the solubility of the gases. Ultrasonic degassing has the advantage of not substantially increasing the temperature of the liquid. In the presence of an ultrasonic field, the gas bubbles begin to vibrate, coalesce, and grow, reaching a sufficient size to ascend to the liquid surface, being thus removed from the aqueous medium [16].

In a study that covers both applications, foam removal and degassing, Villamiel et al. [108] used 1-second ultrasonic pulses (20 kHz) in milk. At 20°C with 3 minutes of treatment, they managed to reduce foam by 80% with an energy consumption of 40 kJ/l. In order to eliminate the oxygen dissolved in milk, a more energetic treatment was necessary (240 kJ/l).

5.5.2 Filtration

High-power ultrasound has been applied to promote diffusion through membranes and porous materials. This improvement is attributed to the formation of microstreams generated within the liquid in the presence of high-energy ultrasonic fields. That is how it would facilitate the processes of filtration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, and reverse osmosis [109]. During membrane filtration, the flow progressively decays to a stationary state due to the polarization of the concentration, and the saturation of the filter. Ultrasound acts by increasing the flow and preventing saturation if applied during filtration or by breaking the deposit layer of solutes or cake on the filters, acting in this case as a cleaning method [16].

5.5.3 Texture modification

Texture plays a crucial role in influencing consumers’ liking and preference of meat products. This sensation is influenced by various factors including muscle type, age and cut, its water holding capacity, and the degree of maturation, among others [110]. The application of ultrasound might help to improve meat tenderness, thus obtaining better quality products. However, the effect of high-power ultrasound on meat tenderization is not entirely clear, and this is likely because there are many factors that influence its effect, such as the characteristics of the ultrasonic field, the time of exposure, the animal species, and the type of muscle, among others. Some authors state that those studies in which ultrasound application had no effect would be due to the low ultrasonic densities (0.29–1.55 W/cm2) or short treatment times (15 s) applied [111, 112, 113]. In any case, there are systems already in the market for tendering meat based on ultrasound [114].

In the case of meat products, ultrasound can improve cohesiveness between different pieces of meat [109] by promoting the release of myofibrillar proteins and gel formation. This effect is important in processes such as the production of cooked ham or cured meat products in which an adhesive protein exudate is required in order to act as a glue between the different parts during molding or stuffing [110].

5.5.4 Food cutting

Most processed foods are prepared in large quantities, often in blocks or in large sheets. For marketing and consumption, it is necessary to reduce their size, in many cases by cutting the product. For this propose, ultrasonic probes in the shape of a blade are used which vibrate at a certain ultrasonic frequency longitudinally or as a piston. When it comes into contact with food, it cuts it due to both the vibration and the sharp edge of the blade. These types of probes have been used successfully in the cutting of fragile, heterogeneous, and sticky products such as cream cakes, bread, pastries, biscuits, and cheese [16, 115].

6. Conclusions

Although ultrasound is a well-known technology that is commonly used in several fields such as medicine or in the automobile industry, its use in the food industry is still scarce especially in the case of high-power ultrasound. However, due to its capacity to improve mass and energy transfer phenomena—which occur in numerous processes in the food industry—it might be very helpful for producing safer and higher quality products than those obtained by traditional procedures. In addition, ultrasound is considered a safe, nonpolluting, and environmentally friendly technology, which has also contributed to attract the interest of the food industry. Finally, the lower implementation cost—up to the industrial scale—of some applications compared to other nonthermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields or high hydrostatic pressures will facilitate its industrialization in some food sectors. In any case, further research is still necessary for some applications since many factors have to be considered when designing equipment and applying ultrasound treatments in the food industry in order to achieve an efficient application.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support from iNOBox (Project number 281106) funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Department of Innovation Research and University of the Aragon Government and European Social Fund (ESF). L.A. gratefully acknowledges the financial support for her studies provided by the “Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional.”

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Those applications are mainly related to the improvement in mass and energy transfer in different processes when ultrasound is applied in water or through air, e.g., reduction in dehydration; thawing and freezing times and energy costs of plant-, meat-, or fish-based products; increase the extraction yields of intracellular compounds with biological activity; reduction of chemical health risks such as cadmium or acrylamide; etc. The influence of some physical parameters like temperature and pressure in cavitation intensity and the potential of this technology to even inactivate microorganisms in food products and surfaces in contact with food will be discussed. 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Applications of high-power ultrasound in the food industry",level:"1"},{id:"sec_5_2",title:"5.1 Emulsion formation",level:"2"},{id:"sec_6_2",title:"5.2 Food preservation",level:"2"},{id:"sec_6_3",title:"5.2.1 Microbial and enzyme inactivation",level:"3"},{id:"sec_7_3",title:"5.2.2 Microbial decontamination and surface cleaning",level:"3"},{id:"sec_9_2",title:"5.3 Mass transfer",level:"2"},{id:"sec_9_3",title:"5.3.1 Extraction",level:"3"},{id:"sec_10_3",title:"5.3.2 Drying and dehydration",level:"3"},{id:"sec_11_3",title:"5.3.3 Marinating and pickling",level:"3"},{id:"sec_13_2",title:"5.4 Energy transfer",level:"2"},{id:"sec_13_3",title:"5.4.1 Heating",level:"3"},{id:"sec_14_3",title:"5.4.2 Freezing",level:"3"},{id:"sec_15_3",title:"5.4.3 Thawing",level:"3"},{id:"sec_17_2",title:"5.5 Other applications of ultrasound in the food industry",level:"2"},{id:"sec_17_3",title:"5.5.1 Foaming and degassing capacity",level:"3"},{id:"sec_18_3",title:"5.5.2 Filtration",level:"3"},{id:"sec_19_3",title:"5.5.3 Texture modification",level:"3"},{id:"sec_20_3",title:"5.5.4 Food cutting",level:"3"},{id:"sec_23",title:"6. 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1. Introduction

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Since 2016 the government of Cameroon has been doing everything to stop any collective action organized by the population in the English-speaking part of the country to denounce their marginalization by sending security forces to roughly brutalize the population in order to discourage protest march. Lawyers and teachers in Southern Cameroon went on strike in 2016 and they were later on joined by the general public. The call by asking for a federation in which the Anglophone could manage their own affairs, a situation which existed before the referendum in 1972 later on turned into a call for independence. Equally, in French-speaking Cameroon, the government too have done everything to quell protest march against electoral frauds and the departure of the government which has been ruling for over 38 years and which is doing everything to maintain itself in power. In Cameroon, there are two groups of people with distinct colonial heritage: the Anglophone in the minority are dissatisfied with their relation with their French-speaking brothers and want total freedom while the French-speaking citizens are protesting for better governance and a change of system.

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All these as [1] puts it, is a mode of political action oriented toward objection to one or more policies or conditions, characterized by showmanship or display of an unconventional nature, and undertaken to obtain rewards from political or economic systems while working within the system. Equally, [2] states that, a protest act includes the following elements: the action expresses a grievance, a conviction of wrong or injustice; the protesters are unable to correct the condition directly by their own efforts; the action is intended to draw attention to the grievances; the action is further meant to provoke ameliorative steps by some target group; and the protestors depend upon some combination of sympathy and fear to move the target group in their behalf”.

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A protest group is, by definition, a collectivity of actors who want to achieve their shared goal or goals by influencing decisions of a target group. In our case the protest group is either the Anglophones who are fighting for secession because they have been marginalized for over 50 years or the French-speaking Cameroonians who are protesting to kick out a system that has been in power for over 38 years. In this case, the shared goal of the Anglophone is different from that of the Francophone while one is protesting against a change of state, the other is protesting against a change of government. Does this differing shared goals and collective identity affect their various mobilization and collective action? Our objective is to examine how protest marches in both the English-speaking and French-speaking parts of Cameroon differ.

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It is worth-noting that article 11 of [3] states that everyone has the right to associate with others and gather together for a common purpose and it stresses that it is fundamental for people to be free. People must protest peacefully, join trade unions and hold the powerful to account. People have the right to come together with others and peacefully share their views. Authorities must allow people to take part in marches, protests and demonstrations. There is the freedom of expression as it applies to protests, marches and demonstrations, counter-demonstrations, press conferences, public and private meetings but it does not protect intentionally violent protest. However, this right is limited if it is covered by law, for the interest of national security or public safety, prevention of crimes or disorder, the protection of health or morals and the protection of others’ rights and freedoms.

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The article clearly states that the state should not interfere with people’s right to protest just because it disagrees with protesters’ views, because it’s likely to be in convenient and cause a nuisance or because there might be tension and heated exchange between opposing groups. Instead it must take reasonable steps to enable people protest and to protect participants in peaceful demonstrations from disruption by others. Contrarily in Cameroon, the government thinks that protest marches will affect the integrity of the state and style protesters as terrorists. The questions we ask are: How does the government of Cameroon restrict the protest marches of protesters? How do the protesters and the general public react to these restrictions? Our objective is to explain how human rights are abused in Cameroon through protest march restriction and how Cameroonians react to the restriction.

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This work is divided into two distinct parts: part one concerns the protest march of secession demanded by the English-speaking (Southern Cameroon or Amnazonia) part of the country due to the French-speaking part dominance over them and the second part concerns the French-speaking part of the country which is protesting to overturn a system that has ruled the country for over 38 years.

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2. Data collection and interpretation

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We collected the qualitative data of acts of protest marches in English-speaking and French-speaking Cameroon from the Internet, using the accounts of seasoned activists who had sent out numerous posts on different protest marches to their targeted population. Those posts are important textual material: videos, blog posts, comments, social networking posts which are all as [4] calls them, essential parts of the expanse of qualitative material online. Equally, [5] considers them as “a new continent, rich in resources but in parts most perilous.” which had “lain undiscovered, unmined and uninhabited” for about 30 years.

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Activists posted many materials online to keep their audiences abreast of the difficulties of organizing a protest march in Cameroon and to awaken their consciousness of the importance of protest marches to either secede from the country and restore their independence or to change the government that has been in power for over 38 years. Therefore Facebook was a fruitful site of the way as [6] puts it, hundreds of millions of Cameroonians and other nationals connect to one another and share protest march information: it provides an entirely preserved archive of data featuring, write-up, friends’ comments, pictures, about the protest marches in English and French speaking parts of Cameroon. We judged the information as a true reflection of participants’ minds, uses and behavior. Therefore, the participants were ‘doing’ things with their postings. As may be expected from our theoretical stance, our questions focused on how people talked and interacted on Facebook of events of protest marches in Cameroon. The symbols of the posts to the public drew our attention as well as the people’s reactions. We considered their comments in order to understand how both English-speaking and French-speaking Cameroonians differ in the appreciation of the posts of protest marches in Cameroon.

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In this age of smartphones images or video-making is easy as most people even in the third world possess a smartphone with a built-in camera. They film relevant events in their daily lives: usually the remarkable, the extraordinary, the exceptional and not the ordinary or everyday activities [7]. We decided then to collect videos of protest marches in Cameroon in order to analyze them because they provide information that other types of data do not provide. They are ‘proofs of facts’ because a picture or video is more, and different, than a thousand words since they contain much more visual information on bodily movement and include acoustic data. Although images are specific reality constructions ambivalent, subjective and diffuse, their interpretation must be substantiated in words [8]. The questions we asked concerning each of the videos were similar to those asked by Becker, 1974 [9]: What are the acts of violence and human rights abuses in each video? How can they be interpreted and linked to our theoretical concept? What insight do they generate and substantiate? What different kinds of people are there? We link observations to theoretical concepts such as status, groups, norms, rules, and common understandings, deviance and rule violation, sanctions and conflict resolution.

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3. Protest march restrictions in English-speaking Cameroon - Ambazonia

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This part dwells on three main protests marches in Southern Cameroon, two of which triggered the Anglophone or Ambazonia crisis: the common lawyer and the university of Buea students’ strike. Both of them were clammed down by a heavy police force and the second was the 22nd September, 2017 massive and pervasive march protest that took place all over Ambazonia; it took the government off-guard.

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The Southern Cameroon crisis is an Ambazonians’ attempt to break from the dominant Francophone cultural hegemony. La République du Cameroun has dominated and tried to absorb them into the broader Francophone cultural system since 1972 by silently destroying their dignity and statehood because they came into union with them from a weaker position: a numerically smaller population [10].

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The relationship that exists between Southern Cameroon and La République du Cameroon is one of two people, two inheritances, and two divergent mentalities: one struggles for its liberation while the other suppresses and abuses its human rights or struggles to maintain control over it by using its mighty state military. They speak different languages with little or no rapprochement although they live in the same country [10].

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3.1 The police and the Southern Cameroon common law lawyers confrontation

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The protest which was led by Barrister Agbor Balla, Dr. Fontem Neba and Tassang Wilfred began on October 6, 2016 as a sit-down strike initiated by the Cameroon Anglophone Civil Society Consortium (CACSC), an organization consisting of lawyer and teacher trade unions from the Anglophone regions of Cameroon.

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According to Wikipedia 20 [11], the common lawyers of Anglophone Cameroon had written an appeal letter to the government complaining of the use of French at schools and courtrooms in the English-speaking regions of Cameroon. Desirous to protect the English culture, they began a sit-down strike in all courtrooms on October 6, 2016. Peaceful marches began in the cities of Bamenda, Buea, and Limbe calling for the protection of the common law system in Anglophone Cameroon and the practice of the Common Law sub-system in Anglophone courts and not the Civil Law as the French-speaking magistrates were using in court. They equally asked for the creation of a common law school at the University of Bamenda and Buea.

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In addition, Francophone occupied all the outstanding positions at the Supreme Court. Although Francophone had little or no knowledge in English and the Common Law, they were mostly magistrates and bailiffs in the Anglophone zone. As a result, Anglophones lawyers were disgruntled of the domination of the Civil Law to the detriment of the common law as if Cameroon was uniquely a Civil Law country. Equally, the Business law for Africa (OHADA) uniform acts, CEMAC code, and others were not translated into English because Francophone wanted to assimilate the Common Law sub-system.

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In Africanews, Morning call 2016 [12], Barrister Bobga Harmony lamented that the government of Cameroon had completely ignored them which violated their right to self-determination. He said that “since 1972, they have been a progressive, an inexplicable, illegal and illegitimate erosion of the common law.” He regretted the Francophone gradual replacement of the Common Law with the French Civil law as if Anglophone “were a conquered people”. The lawyers had complained to competent authorities through writing for years before taking concrete actions in order not to be swallowed up by the dominant Francophone system. They held a Common Law conference on the 9th May 2015 which was followed by a 2nd conference in Buea where they made a declaration to reinforce their position.

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Although they had sent a communiqué to the presidency of the Republic of Cameroon, nobody paid attention to them. The Minister of Justice insulted the Common Lawyers in the government newspaper: Cameroon Tribune instead of defending them. Having exhausted all negotiation with the executive and the legislature, they protested and insisted to talk only with the president of the Republic of Cameroon or his properly mandated agent. They had filed a petition to the National Assembly and the Senate and they were planning to file another petition to the constitutional council to determine the question of whether they had been any act of union between West Cameroon and East Cameroon. They equally planned to proceed to the following international jurisdiction: African Commission for Human and People’s Right, the Human Right Commission if the government failed to listen to them. Bobga Harmony insisted “We are going to seize the international community because these are grave abuses of human rights. The international community cannot fold its arms and allow us to be brutalized in our land,” [13] .

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3.2 Molestation of lawyers

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The government sent over 5000 troops to thwart the Anglophone crisis. The crisis was considered to be “a strong organized and well-coordinated violence from angry protesters and the government did not want to allow that part of the country to be destroyed and the protesters too said they would not stop protesting until the government solved their problems. [14].

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Policemen hit the ‘the men in uniform’: lawyers with their batons in Buea. The Special Rapid Response (ESIR), the police and gendarmerie locked down and monitored the entire city. There was also a heavy police presence to confront the demonstrators. The policemen demanded that the lawyers hand over their black robes to them [15].

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The demonstration of lawyers in Buea in the Southwest region on the 10th November, 2016, met with heavy-handed police response. Law enforcement officers reportedly brutalized, ransacked the offices of lawyers, seized their wigs and gowns, injured and harassed many in their cars, seized and destroyed their phones, barred some from joining the demonstrations, raided hotels in search for them and harassed them (Figures 1 and 2).

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Figure 1.

Confrontation between police and lawyers. Source: Cameroon online [31]: http://www.cameroonconcordnews.com/category/news/page/373/.

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Figure 2.

Source: Cameroon online [31]: http://www.cameroonconcordnews.com/category/news/page/373/.

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A video [16] went viral showing how police brutalized lawyers and the commotion that took place in the Muea police station. It clearly shows a police officer pursuing a young lawyer, then another lawyer is pushed into the police station by yet another policeman. Another man in robe is brutalized and pushed out of the police station. The police hit another who falls down and his watch falls off but the police pull him up by dragging his coat. A policewoman encourages her colleagues to hit the lawyer by clearly articulating the phrase in French “frappe,” “frappez-lui” over and over.

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The episodes of police brutality in Ambazonia were not limited to lawyers only; it extended to the University of Buea students as well as the general public. Police molested many and a lot of disturbing videos show armed police officers hitting or rolling them in water, invading students’ quarters and beating them [10].

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3.3 Police confrontation with students

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Teachers and the general public joined the lawyers in the strike by vehemently opposing what they described as the “imposition of French at schools in Anglophone parts of the country.” Students either struggled on their own at school because even private schools teachers had deserted classroom in support of the public sector teachers and so many classrooms and schools across Ambazonia were empty. They did not want the government to continue sending teachers who spoke only in French or Pidgin English. Even students supported the strike action because they were unemployed after completing school. “For over fifty years Anglophone students have not been able to have a headway in Cameroon in most disciplined that bring about development: science and technology because the government has refused to train teachers for our schools,” declared Tassang Wilfred over Aljazeera (2016) [17].

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The University of Buea strike pulled a mammoth crowd of students who came protesting in order to attract the attention of the authority of the university to their plights. One student carried a placard on which it reads: “enough is enough”. They had a variety of complaints: the non-payment of the 50,000frs CFA that the government had promised them, the cancelation of the 10,000frs CFA penalty fees for the late payment of school-fees, the payment of fees before being given a semester result and as it was the general cry with the secondary and high schools in the Anglophone zone, they also demanded the removal of French-speaking lecturers from the faculty of the university [17].

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They stood firm in front of the Administrative Block in order to meet the Vice Chancellor to complain to her but instead security forces took her away and a huge number of security forces were sent to dispatch the students. As they arrived, the students ran into different directions and the atmosphere became very tense and misty because the security officers had thrown teargas and fired gun-shots in the air. The students shouted “no violence” as they darted away for safety. Despite beating and arresting them, the spirit of the strike action was not dampened so the students left and marched into the street (Figure 3).

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Figure 3.

Protest march and mass arrest of students. SOURCE: CHRDA https://www.chrda.org/torture-of-university-of-buea-students-2-years-after/.

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3.4 The Ambazonia massive and pervasive protest march

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According to [18, 19] renewed mass protests broke out early morning on Sept. 22, (Friday) 1st October 2017, in major towns and villages across the North West and South West regions thereby intensifying the crisis. Close to 80,000 people of demonstrators in across thirty Anglophone towns and communities (Bamenda, Buea, Kumba, Kumbo, Limbe, etc.) marched through the streets on Friday in protest against the continuous detention of some of the inhabitants of the regions and demanded their independence from French Cameroon as well as the release of Anglophone political prisoners, the departure of President Biya, the implementation of federalism, and secession. The demonstrations was at the time President Paul Biya was scheduled to address the United Nations General Assembly in New York. Paul Biya’s speech ended without mentioning the Anglophone crisis in his country. This infuriated some protesters who spoke to the media (Figure 4).

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Figure 4.

The Ambazonia massive protest march [18].

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The demonstrations took off in Bamenda in the North-West Region on Friday morning by defying a ban on movement of persons imposed on Thursday night by the region’s Governor Adolphe Lele Lafrique, following a bomb attack on Thursday that injured three police officers. Local media reported that security forces were stationed at vantage points in the town and the protesters peacefully waved banners with inscriptions calling for the release of their compatriots and independence. The demonstration spread to Buea in the South-West Region where women spearheaded the march with hundreds behind them carrying leaves, tree branches and flags of the Cameroon separatist movement. The aggrieved population also took to the streets placards, whistles and flags of Southern Cameroons/Ambazonia; a country they clamor to create when they secede from the Republic of Cameroon. Protesters moved to public places, hoisting blue-white flags and seeking to meet with administrative and traditional authorities. It was the same scene in other towns like Fontem, Bafia, Kumba and Mamfe among others in the same region where separatists demanded independence from French Cameroon. The civil disobedience call was made by the Ambazonia Governing Council and amplified by Anglophone activists in the diaspora, as a build up to Oct. 1, the day the pro-secessionist groups intended to restore their independence (Figure 5).

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Figure 5.

Women leading the march [20].

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Other Anglophone also protested at the UN headquarters in New York. According to [21], in the diaspora Southern Cameroonians took hostage the UN headquarters in their host countries. It was hot at the UN headquarters in New York where the two distinct peoples of Southern Cameroons and La Republique du Cameroon challenged each other.

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According to [22] the crisis in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon escalated on 1st October 2017, when militant secessionist groups symbolically proclaimed the independence of Ambazonia. Violence left dozens of protesters dead and over 100 injured. The event was to commemorate the 1961 reunification between the Cameroon under French mandate and the British Southern Cameroons.

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On 1 October, tens of thousands of people began a peaceful march holding a plant symbolizing peace and chanting “no violence” to proclaim the independence of Ambazonia (the name given by secessionists to their hypothetical state. In Bamenda, Buea and across dozens of towns and communities, people marched and hoisted Ambazonian flags at intersections and on top the residences of traditional chiefs as well as at police stations and gendarmerie posts. Independence was symbolically proclaimed in chiefs’ compounds.

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The march protest showed to the Biya’s regime that the Anglophone minority is a potential time bomb that will destroy national unity and reconciliation if the government failed to respect their cultural and linguistic traditional. Hon Joseph Wirba of the Jakiri Special Constituency while addressing his colleagues of the national assembly made it clear ‘when the people shall rise, even if you bring the whole of the French army and add to yours, you shall not be able to stop them.”

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3.5 Government’s response

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According to [18, 50] security forces responded with bullets and teargas, injuring some protesters in Santa and Ekona in the North West and South West Regions and arrested dozens of people. Government ordered the banning of all radio and television discussions on the political situation in the region. President Biya subsequently signed a decree establishing the National Commission of Bilingualism and Multiculturalism to solve the matter. In August 2018, the president signed a decree releasing Anglophone leaders detained for months because of the protests. Several others including journalists are still behind bars facing terrorism charges.

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Crisis Group [23] states that defense and security forces responded with disproportionate force, leading to at least 40 deaths and over 100 injured protesters between 28 September and 2 October. This death toll is the result of live ammunition and excessive use of tear gas on those at homes as well as faithful going to church. Defense and security forces arrested hundreds of people without warrant, including those who were in their homes. They made use of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment. Sexual abuse, destruction of property and looting of homes by soldiers and police, as well as shooting from helicopters at protesters in Kumba, Bamenda and near Buea were reported by a dozen residents, local politicians, senior officials, the press, human rights organizations and the Catholic bishops of the two regions.

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According to Primus F. [24], the villages of secessionist leaders such as Ewele, Akwaya, Eyumodjock and Ekona were targeted by the defense and security forces, forcing thousands of young men to flee to the bush for fear of being killed or arrested and tortured. Violence, arrests and looting by military and police continued throughout the following week, notably in the department of Manyu. Suspected of secessionism, Deputy Mayor of Ndu was reportedly killed at home by the military on 2 October.

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This widespread violence took place during a de facto state of emergency and martial law, imposed by the two regional governors from 29 September to 3 October: they enforced curfews, banned demonstrations and gatherings of more than four people, closed regional land and sea borders, broght in military reinforcements, banned all movement from one department to another, banned motorcycling, and cut off social networks, followed by the internet and electricity. On 1 October, people were also forbidden from leaving their homes [19].

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Some senior officials and high-ranking officers explained that the excessive measures were due to lack of police officers, insufficient police equipment, the lack of blank cartridges and an inadequate stock or misuse of tear gas. Their claim was that gendarmes and police officers mismanaged their insufficient stock of tear gas by using it at homes, and ran out when facing protesters.

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They also accused protesters of inciting unrest by burning vehicles that belonged to the sub-divisional officers and Divional Officers in Boyo and Fundong (in the Northwest), snatching weapons from gendarmes in Kumba (in the Southwest), ransacking the police stations of Ikiliwindi, Mabanda Teke and Kongle, and reportedly throwing stones at police and military in Buea and Bamenda. Finally, they point out that some police officers and military personnel refused to participate in the violence, which meant that the security apparatus was understaffed [19].

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The government official missions abroad to discuss with Cameroonians in the diaspora in August failed and it led to increased cases of arson and sporadic violence by unidentified splinter groups, violent repression of Anglophone activists by security forces on 22 September, bomb blasts in the Northwest, and a de facto state of emergency from 29 September to 3 October. Due to such murderous repression, secessionist ranks grew, and they firmly evoked the idea of an armed struggle or “self-defense”. The crisis needed political solutions through the mediation of a credible mediator, such as the UN Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) or the African Union and superficial measures and take responsibility in order to find political solutions to the crisis [23].

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3.6 Social dynamic: the change of stance

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According to Billy A et al. [25], the Anglophone conflict has escalated since 2016 because more Anglophone movements including those that praised the decentralization of power and those which supported federalism have joined pro-independence movements. They are armed and are committing violence as well as petitioning international and regional organizations such as the United Nations and the African Union to seek for a solution to the crisis. The current spate of violence that has caused a lot of deaths, bloodshed, and the destruction of properties started when lawyers and teachers protested. How have Ambazonians changed their stance for the past four years of the crisis?

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When Southern Cameroonians watched the video [25] which describes in detail the massive and pervasive protest march which took place on the 22nd September and the 1st October 2017, they did not only considered the event as one “that gave nightmare for LRC” but noticed the enormous change that had taken place so far. In 2017, they wanted a federation but presently, they are fighting for total freedom: The analyses below are based on Ambazonians’ views on the ABC (The Ambazonia Broadcasting Corporation) television programme: Remembering September 22 2017.

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“This is a rebroadcast of 2017 by then we wanted a federation. We have moved on to total independence,” “No to Federation,” “They have been killing our people with no remorse on daily bases big no to federation,” etc. [26].

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They gladly acknowledged their pledge to fight for a free Ambazonia because as they said it is not given but won and that the spirit of a free Ambazonia dwells in them all. And they praise Honorable Wirba who shook the House of Assembly with his declaration and considered him a true prophet when he said: “When my people will raise even if you join your forces with that of France you will not win them,” Then they affirmed that until independence is achieved, there will be no peace in Cameroon.

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“Ambazonia must be free,” “Independent or no peace” “the Ambazonian spirit lives on in every Ambazonian,” “We Ambazonians in the majority have consciously chosen freedom”. This freedom, we Ambazonians shall earn and it is not given. God help us » “I wish I will be alive. The Ngoketugia Marines will be there” [26].

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This shows that the crisis has taken a dynamic and dramatic change from federation: staying with la République du Cameroun and managing their own affairs to total independence, that is, having nothing to do with French-speaking Cameroon because no political solution had been sought for the crisis but superficial and martial solutions. This was seen by the war draft that the Interim Government organized that almost 2 million dollars were raised to prosecute the war for independence.

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Being assured of achieving their independence, they recommended the keeping of the videos because as they said many people in the crowd had been either killed or imprisoned by the Yaoundé regime:

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“God gave us leaders. Look at that young man. Hope he is still alive,” “God cover you all with his blood brothers and sisters” “Videos like this must be kept. Many in that crowd have disappeared or they are in underground prisons” [26].

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They considered those who spoke contrary to their views as foreigners or francophone; “All those speakers are Bamilikes and so we don’t expect anything better from their responses,” “They are all Bamis,” “So funny to listen to them, who the hell are these men? In who’s name are they talking?” “All francophone, federalists or unionists have no more voice in the Ambazonian revolution,”

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They also question why soldiers were killing only Anglophones “Look at the protests today. No Francophone Camerounian was killed” [26].

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4. Protest march in French-speaking Cameroon

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The Cameroon Renaissance Movement (MRC) lawyer Emmanuel Simh told Human Rights Watch: “We have made dozens of demands for peaceful protests and, as usual, the authorities have turned them down. But we believe that we cannot arbitrarily withdraw the right to peaceful assembly, which is recognized by the constitution.” His supporters defied the ban on demonstration, and organized a two-day long anti-government protests against the presidential election results in the streets of Douala, Yaoundé, Dschang, Bafoussam and Mbouda.

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As a result, Maurice Kamto was taken into custody from the house of Albert Dzongang, a party member, in the southwestern Douala city late on January 26 and was first transported to the premises of the judicial police of the Littoral region. From there, he was reportedly transferred to Yaoundé, along with around 150 demonstrators. Members of his inner circle Christian Penda Ekoka, Albert Dzongang, Celestin Djamen and Alain Fogue were also arrested for attempting to destabilize the state and for calling and organizing an unauthorized demonstrations or insurrection. Six MRC members were injured even Ndoki: a reputed lawyer. The match was violently repressed, the police used teargas and water to disperse the crowd and the police shot live bullets on the crowds. Kamto’s lawyers seized the UN about the “arbitrary” imprisonment of their client and other detained opponents, and called for their “immediate” release [27].

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According to [28], the Cameroon Renaissance Movement (MRC) announced in early April that it would organize public demonstrations on April 6 and 13, 2019 to demand the immediate release of its president: Maurice Kamto who had been imprisoned for more than two months as well as to denounce “the selective modification of the electoral code” and the mismanagement of funds dedicated to the construction of stadiums for the 2019 African Nations Cup which Cameroon was to host. The Cameroonian government banned it and threatened: “The instigators and offenders, whoever they are, will come up against the rigor of the law”, and the government considered it to be a provocation and an act of insurgency. MRC was accused of destroying Cameroonian embassies in Paris and Berlin and the government threatened to suspend or ban the political party.

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4.1 The 22 September 2020 in French Cameroon

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Despite the restriction of protest march by the government, the coalition of opposition parties and civil society organization called Les Forces du Changement headed by Pr Maurice Kamto, president of the Cameroon Renaissance Movement expressed unhappiness through a forbidden protest march [29, 30]. The reasons for the peaceful march was to call for the revision of the electoral codes, peace in the North West and South West regions and for the president of the republic to leave power.

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Early that morning, there was a strong deployment of well-armed security forces composed of policemen, gendarmes. They were positioned at all points in the towns of Douala, Yaoundé and Bafoussam in order to disperse protesters who had been manifesting. Despite the presence of the security forces, protesters staged the march, security forces blocked Maurice Kamto at his home and they used teargas to disperse the crowd, as well as arrested and transported protesters in pick-ups.

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An MRC leader said that “although it is a peaceful demonstration where the populations march with the flag of the country and tree branches, a symbol of peace, the army sprayed them with tear gas to disperse them, “ [31]. Why is it difficult to protest in Cameroon? (Figures 6 and 7).

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Figure 6.

Cameroon police used tear gas to break up protes. Source: Newvision:https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1527636/cameroon-police-tear-gas-break-protest [32].

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Figure 7.

Confrontation with police. Source: Anadoulou agency [33].

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4.2 Legislation on protest march in Cameroon: the anti-terrorism law

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This part of the work examines why Cameroonians are refused the right to march peacefully and why the government represses them even when they have asked for an authorization to organize a peaceful march or when marching waving peace plants which indicate peace and not violence.

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The Law No. 2014/028 of 23 December 2014 on the Suppression of Acts of Terrorism (Anti-Terrorism Law) has been making public manifestation difficult in Cameroon whether peaceful or violent. It considers terrorism to be “any act by an individual or groups of persons‘ acting alone (or in group) as an accomplice or accessory, (who) commits or threatens to commit an act likely to cause death, endanger physical integrity, cause bodily injury or material damage, destroy natural resources, the environment or cultural heritage’ with the sole intention to: (a) intimidate the public or provoke a situation of terror; or (b) disrupt the national functioning of public services; or (c) create widespread insurrection. In all of these instances, the punishment is death” [34].

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The government of Cameroon has been systemically violating fundamental human rights and freedoms since this law was enacted. The law is mostly used as a strategic framework to control the exercise and enjoyment of fundamental rights in Cameroon (whether peaceful or violent) [35]. The law is an anathema to human rights because the Military Court’s interpretation and application of the law against the rights to strike and freedom of expression are wrong and unconstitutional. It is the new law on the repression of fundamental rights and the government has to amend it to reflect international human rights’ commitments.

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It is difficult to understand what is meant by the intent ‘to intimidate the public or the intent to disrupt national functioning of public service within the normative content of section 2 that the government uses to arrest and condemn individuals with acts of terrorism. The enactment of the anti-terrorism law has disrupted the exercise and enjoyment of fundamental human rights and freedoms because people have been tagged, judged and imprisoned as terrorists by the Yaoundé Military Court [35].

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In 2017, Ayah Paul Abine: a former Supreme Court Justice, was arbitrarily arrested without any warrant because he had expressed disappointment with the government’s brutal treatment of English-speaking Cameroonians and suggested a return to federalism as a solution to the Anglophone crisis [36]. The powers-that-be simply instructed the police to arrest him. His arbitrary detention was because he had expressed his opinion. This was a clear indication of the violation of his right to freedom of expression and an obstacle to his physical, socio-economic and psychological development. It also indicates what the government of Cameroon is able to do to curtail the free exercise of fundamental human rights, contrary to its international commitments.

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In 2017, Common Law Lawyers and the Teachers Associations of the Anglo-Saxon educational system of Cameroon carried out a peaceful strike demonstration but they were brutalized. Their arrest, detention and imprisonment were a flagrant violation of their fundamental rights which the government of Cameroon had committed to protect. According to [33], there was no possible justification for castigating the Common Law Lawyers and Anglo-Saxon teachers as terrorists, it was the government’s attempt to abuse their fundamental rights instead of addressing their concerns. How did the actions and declarations of the Common Law Lawyers and Anglo-Saxon teachers, through civil disobedience against a perceived marginalization and erosion of the Anglo-Saxon system of education and Common Law legal practice, satisfied the requirements of section 2 of the anti-terrorism law?

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A strike action which an administrative officer duly authorized was later considered a terrorist activity. On 28 of January 2019, the police arbitrarily arrested Maurice Kamto and 200 members of his political party, detained and charged them for sedition, rebellion, insurrection, destruction of public properties and vandalism for contesting the presidential elections, and they were likely to face the death penalty [37]. How on earth can a protest action against electoral fraud be translated into intimidation of the public, in order to qualify it as an act of terrorism? According to [35], although the destruction of public properties is an irresponsible act and should be condemned, it does not justify any charge of terrorism which is punishable by death. The government ought to have instead charged them with destruction of public properties and not terrorism. Destruction of public properties and looting are common aspects of (violent) strike actions globally and therefore they are not peculiar to Cameroon. No country in the world has considered violent strike action as an act of terrorism, as it is the case in Cameroon because the government does not want any opposition or criticism of any kind.

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The anti-terrorism law has not spared the freedom of expression in journalism and the media. The police accused and arbitrarily arrested Samuel Wazizi: a local broadcaster of CMTV in 2019 for speaking critically on the air on how the government had handled the (Anglophone) crisis [38]. Then the Motorized Infantry Battalion transferred him to Yaounde, neither his family nor his lawyer were allowed to contact him. He died in detention in 2020 because of torture. Four security forces also arbitrarily arrested Kinglsey Fumunyuy Njoka: a freelance journalist at his home and held him incommunicado for three weeks because he was accused of secessionism and collusion with pro-secessionists groups in the English-speaking part of the Cameroon [39]. On 12 June, he was placed under provisional detention for six months.

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The above violations of human rights illustrate that the government of Cameroon uses the law as a political tool to quell dissent and silence political opponents instead of using it to fight against terrorism. On 24 February 2020, supporters of the ruling party protested in front of the French embassy in Yaoundé, against what they considered an insulting and unacceptable outing of President Emmanuel Macron of France on Saturday, 22 February 2020, accusing President Paul Biya for gross human rights violation [40]. Surprisingly, none of the protesters was arrested or charged with terrorism.

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The anti-terrorism law has considerably abused the right to strike because any strike action is construed as a terrorist activity. Instead of promoting such democratic values and principles premised on the respect of fundamental human rights, the government has improvised (through legislative means) attempts to disallow, limit and inhibit freedom of expression, on the grounds of terrorism, just to justify restriction. The antiterrorism law has helped the administration to vehemently suppress every opinion exercised through the right to freedom of expression that does not support the regime. Any opposition or criticism of the government is deemed an outright act of terrorism or insurrection or hostility against the state.

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It is impossible to understand how the government arrest and detain citizens for exercising their rights within the frame of international and African human rights law and the Constitution. Abusing freedom of expression is implicitly curtailing other linked rights-based entitlements. In the context of press freedom, the right to freedom of expression entails a free, uncensored and unhindered press to comment on public concerns and to inform public opinions on matters that relate to their fundamental rights and freedoms. It permits the media to execute their duties freely and objectively. Curtailing journalists’ rights who, in principle, ought to express views and raise awareness on socio-economic, cultural, political and religious developments in the country and the world at large, is tantamount to a violation of the right to freedom of expression and press freedom [35].

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Therefore, the anti-terrorism law is not meant to fight against terrorism but against every peaceful marches in Cameroon. All the repressed marches we have seen above were meant to be peaceful and not violent; and the application of this legislation was not necessary.

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4.3 Reaction to the restriction of protest march

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Many international organizations and people have reacted to the protest march restriction in Cameroon. They have called on Cameroon to amend the law because it suppresses the expression of human rights in Cameroon.

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Meeting in Geneva on the 11 December, 2018, the UN human rights experts criticized the crackdown against protesters in Cameroon and called on the government to protect freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association. They stated that the International human rights standards give the right to everyone to take part in peaceful demonstrations. The law must not provide any restriction to the freedoms of peaceful assembly and expression and it must be proportional. They clearly stated that: “The restrictions imposed lately by the Cameroonian authorities on the rights to peaceful assembly and expression appear to ignore such criteria, provided for by the international instruments to which Cameroon is a party.” According to them, the country’s 2014 anti-terrorism law should not be used to curtail peaceful assembly, marches or demonstrations organized by political parties during an electoral process [41].

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Lewis Mudge who is the Central Africa director at Human Rights Watch said: “These steps are a thinly veiled attempt by the Cameroonian government to use the Covid-19 pandemic and the draconian anti-terror law as a pretext to quell the right to assemble,”, “Cameroon’s authorities should protect and facilitate the right to assemble, not seek to curb it” [42].

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The above clearly shows how the government uses the terrorism law to curtail its citizens’ human rights. We then examine below how the people in Cameroon and beyond react to such abuse of human rights. We present people’s reactions using their Facebook posts.

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After the march 22 September 2020 many posts were sent and many commentaries were made but we have decided to use the post that the Togolese Activist Farida Bemba Crache sent pouring her venom on the regime in Yaoundé. The post was shared 427 times and about half a thousand commentaries were made about it. Equally; the commentaries have an international character because the commentators were both Cameroonians in the country and those in the diaspora. And it compares the situation in Cameroon to those in other French-speaking countries in Africa. In order to make sense of the feelings of people both Cameroonians and non-Cameroonians, we made an effort to categorize their responses.

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The post reads: “In Cameroon, Paul Biya and his government ban the demonstrations of Maurice Kamto’s MRC, deploy soldiers everywhere to beat, gas and intimidate the populations and at the end of the day, the henchmen of this regime come back to say that Cameroonians do not want change and that the demonstration flopped in Yaoundé. But if the Biya regime really thinks that Maurice Kamto and his people have no power to mobilize, why ban the demonstrations? These are the same nonsense that is happening in Togo, Guinea, Ivory Coast and in all these colonial enclosures where criminals are installed in power.”

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The commentaries expressed optimism and determination by saying that the population will triumph shortly over the government’s brutality. They thought that the time would come when the government would not contain them meaning the population had not given up hope for the fight for liberation despite the oppression. They said real people do not need any police authorization before marching peacefully. They advise the population to spontaneously go out in mass and do whatever they want. They agreed that marches should not be stopped but people should go out massively to police stations or divisional offices to ask for their compatriots. They agree that if they did not act in solidarity, they would always be threatened. They advised that the marches in Mali, Sudan were never authorized but they took place. ‘They will never have the last word ---- a time will come when they cannot contain us. God is in control for the speechless. Cheer up.”

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What is interesting about the post was its conflicting nature because it was like a battle between those in the ruling party and those in the opposition. While those in the opposition say the people will raise, those in the ruling party retorted by saying: “Which people are you talking about??? Really the people do not support you _ it is clear,” “Of what people it is question,” “Who are the people exactly,” “You mobilized some Bamilekes and you talk of people.” « A few Bamilekes as you say but who are making a good number afraid » This means that the people did not represent the diversity of the Cameroonian people but from a particular group or region. It expresses a tribalistic tendancy when they attach the region of those who protested to the region of the main opposition leader Maurice Kamto in order to trivialize the march protest.

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“Go and win using the ballot box,” “The people of West Region or Cameroon,” which means that they do not have any population supporting them and that they should win using the ballot boxes, that is, through election and not through violence but they complained elections results were distorted. “Where have these elections results been stolen?” By so saying they meant that elections in Cameroon are well-organized: free and fair and any other reason to protest is purely out of violence.

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The opposition says “if elections are free we will win, the government is a demon,” The ruling party supporter retorted by saying that

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“The ruling party is a demon once people come out of the manger.” They meant that people would criticize the government whenever they were unable to benefit from it and not really that it was bad but because they did not longer benefit it. They cited:Kamto, Ekoko and Dzongang who were once in the government but are now criticizing it.

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They ended up by saying that they had no other option but to protest: “What do people have to do in a country where repression and electoral fraud reign? Where peaceful marches recognized in the constitution are forbidden? Where directors of public companies embezzle public funds where the population is crying of hunger but are not listened to by the president? Where a few live in affluence while a majority live in poverty. It was because of these reasons that the population was obliged to protest peacefully for their rights and not to overthrow the government.

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5. Theoretical implications

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Marx and Engels [43] famously argued that, in any epoch, the dominant ideas are the ruling ideas in society which has helped to maintain the dominance of the ruling classes. Those who control economic production also manipulate the production of ideas, and the class which is the material force of society is at the same time the ruling intellectual force. They rule as thinkers and producers of ideas and regulate the production and distribution of ideas of their age. Similarly, the government Cameroon has been producing ideas not just to suppress Southern Cameroonians because of their dominance over the economy, judiciary and political institutions but equally the entire country in the sense that they are in control of the judiciary and the media. They produce ideas which does benefit the general interest but to protect their interest: the anti-terrorism law for instance is to check any uprising against them and they use it not to control terrorism but to hinder the growth of the opposition party in order to maintain themselves in power.

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Equally, the origin of the Ambazonia uprising is as a result of a dominant and not a consensual cultural hegemony. The Ambazonia crisis is an attempt of Southern Cameroonians to break the dominant Francophone cultural hegemony. French-speaking Cameroon has been making efforts not just to dominate them but to absorb them into the broader Francophone cultural system. They silently destroyed the statehood of Anglophones-not by the French-speaking community at large, but by the government which was led and dominated by Francophone.

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What led to the Lawyers and teacher protest marches in the English-speaking part of Cameroon was their lower perceived social status as compared to the Francophone. This led to the creation of a “social identity” of the English-speaking part of Cameroon, what [44, 45] refers to as “the part of their self-concept which derives from their knowledge of their membership of a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership”. Their self-concept (or, equivalently, self-image) is their self-evaluation in their being in union with French-speaking Cameroon. When they compare their social status to that of Francophone, they have a negative perception of themselves: that of marginalized people which is a negative or a low social identity. Accordingly, they try to change this situation of a low or negative social status by mobilizing their members for a protest march as it was on the 22nd September, 2017. This is exactly the hypothesis of SIT: “When social identity is unsatisfactory, individuals will strive to leave their existing groups and join some more positively distinct group and/or make their group more positively distinct” [46]. Since they have been unable to make their situation more favorable comparatively to the Francophone, today, they are clamoring for absolute independence to manage their own affairs.

\n

They have therefore constructed a collective identity which is a collectivity of actors with a common goal. And the common goal for a good number is absolute independence. Their emotional bonds enable them to successfully organize lockdowns and execute the weekly ghost towns and do many other activities that can enhance their freedom from fifty year marginalization

\n

We can also use the Ration Choice Theory (RCT) to explain Protest March participations in French-speaking Cameroon. We formulate it in the following way: Cameroonians choose the action that is least costly and most beneficial for them. “Political protest” is an action. Instead of engaging in a civil war to dislodge the system which has been ruling for nearly forty years, they prefer to choose the least costly one in terms of human lives losses in order to change the system. Maurice Kamto has even said that he would not walk on human blood before getting the presidency. Therefore, in order to explain protest, RCT prompts us to search for those costs and benefits that might instigate people to participate in protests. What are these costs and benefits? The cost of the protest march in Cameroon is that many people will die and will be arrested and imprison as it is the case in both parts of Cameroon and the benefits are that they will internationalize their local problem, maybe change the system and as for the Ambazonia, they may end up gaining their independence. This is the extent to which they think their action or protest makes a difference.

\n
\n
\n

6. Conclusions

\n

Citizens of French-speaking Cameroon are protesting against bad governance, they want to put away the current political system which has been in power for over 38 years while those in Ambazonia on their part are seeking for secession. Whether in English or French-speaking Cameroon, the government’s response to protest marches violates articles 5, 7, 9, 18, 19 and 20 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration of which Cameroon is a signatory.

\n

Article 5 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration states that “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” but this is not the case in Cameroon because opposition leaders are often cruelly treated. They are either held incommunicado for months or cruelly beaten at SED. The imprisoned Ambazonia leader Julius Ayuk Tabe and his cabinet members commonly called the ‘Nera 10’ were held incommunicado for six months and later on condemned to life imprisonment. The militants of MRC were victims of cruel treatment by the government of Cameroon and some including journalists have died in the prison as a result.

\n

The government of Cameroon has also failed to respect article 7 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration which states that ‘All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.” This is not the case when it concerns protest marches in Cameroon. While the government charges opposition leaders who organize protest marches with terrorism and insurrection, arrest and imprison them, those who organize it to support the government go free.

\n

Although article 9 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration states that “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile,” this is not the case in Cameroon where people who organize protest marches, those who criticize the government are arrested without a warrant and imprison without being judged. Hundreds of those who protested in the Anglophone crisis have been in prison now for over four years without being judged.

\n

Article 19 of the “Universal Human Rights Declaration also states that “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.” This seems not to be the case with the government of Cameroon which is arresting opposition leaders and journalists whose opinion differs from theirs. Therefore Cameroon is becoming a much more dictatorial than a democratic nation.

\n

Equally, article 20 (1) of the Universal Human Rights Declaration states that: “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.” This is not the case in Cameroon where there is always a strong deployment of well-armed security forces composed of policemen, gendarmes and they are positioned at all levels to disperse protesters.

\n

For Cameroon to ameliorate its human Rights condition, we recommend that the Government of Cameroon should do the following:

\n\n

Finally for people to freely express themselves and better enjoy their human rights, the anti-terrorism law must be amended and there must be dialogue not as the government wants as it was the case with the Cameroon National dialogue but one that includes the main protagonists like the Swiss-led process which has been endorsed by many countries. Equally, the government must dialogue not only with the parties represented in the National Assembly but also with those out of the National Assembly. Finally, the electoral list must be revised and there must be transparency in voting without any manipulation by the party in power.

\n
\n\n',keywords:"Protest March, social status, repression, independence, Ambazonia, collective identity, Anti-terrorism law",chapterPDFUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/75454.pdf",chapterXML:"https://mts.intechopen.com/source/xml/75454.xml",downloadPdfUrl:"/chapter/pdf-download/75454",previewPdfUrl:"/chapter/pdf-preview/75454",totalDownloads:280,totalViews:0,totalCrossrefCites:0,dateSubmitted:"September 24th 2020",dateReviewed:"January 15th 2021",datePrePublished:"February 27th 2021",datePublished:null,dateFinished:"February 27th 2021",readingETA:"0",abstract:"Southern Cameroonians stage protest marches because of their low or negative social status identity comparative to their French-speaking compatriot. This produces a negative perception of themselves: that of a marginalized people which is a negative or a low social identity. Accordingly, they try to change this situation by mobilizing their members for a protest march as it was on the 22nd September and 1st October, 2017 and their clamor for absolute independence is much clearer today than before. They have therefore constructed a collective identity with a common goal and an emotional bond of organizing protest marches, lockdowns and executing the weekly ghost towns among other. The shared goal of the Anglophone is different from that of the Francophone while one is protesting against the form of state and the protection of their English culture, the other is protesting against a change of government or better governance. In each protest, law enforcement officers brutalized, injured, harassed, seized and destroyed their phones, barred some from joining the demonstrations and dispersed them ruthlessly by violently repressing them, using teargas as well as shooting live bullets on the crowds. While southern Cameroonians share a collective identity and massively organize protest marches, their French-speaking compatriots have conflicting interests and low protest march participation.",reviewType:"peer-reviewed",bibtexUrl:"/chapter/bibtex/75454",risUrl:"/chapter/ris/75454",signatures:"Nanche Billa Robert",book:{id:"9537",type:"book",title:"Human Rights in the Contemporary World",subtitle:null,fullTitle:"Human Rights in the Contemporary World",slug:null,publishedDate:null,bookSignature:"Dr. Trudy Corrigan",coverURL:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9537.jpg",licenceType:"CC BY 3.0",editedByType:null,isbn:"978-1-83968-874-4",printIsbn:"978-1-83968-873-7",pdfIsbn:"978-1-83968-875-1",isAvailableForWebshopOrdering:!0,editors:[{id:"197557",title:"Dr.",name:"Trudy",middleName:null,surname:"Corrigan",slug:"trudy-corrigan",fullName:"Trudy Corrigan"}],productType:{id:"1",title:"Edited Volume",chapterContentType:"chapter",authoredCaption:"Edited by"}},authors:[{id:"285893",title:"Dr.",name:"Nanche Billa",middleName:null,surname:"Robert",fullName:"Nanche Billa Robert",slug:"nanche-billa-robert",email:"nanchefile@yahoo.co.uk",position:null,profilePictureURL:"//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg",institution:null}],sections:[{id:"sec_1",title:"1. Introduction",level:"1"},{id:"sec_2",title:"2. Data collection and interpretation",level:"1"},{id:"sec_3",title:"3. Protest march restrictions in English-speaking Cameroon - Ambazonia",level:"1"},{id:"sec_3_2",title:"3.1 The police and the Southern Cameroon common law lawyers confrontation",level:"2"},{id:"sec_4_2",title:"3.2 Molestation of lawyers",level:"2"},{id:"sec_5_2",title:"3.3 Police confrontation with students",level:"2"},{id:"sec_6_2",title:"3.4 The Ambazonia massive and pervasive protest march",level:"2"},{id:"sec_7_2",title:"3.5 Government’s response",level:"2"},{id:"sec_8_2",title:"3.6 Social dynamic: the change of stance",level:"2"},{id:"sec_10",title:"4. Protest march in French-speaking Cameroon",level:"1"},{id:"sec_10_2",title:"4.1 The 22 September 2020 in French Cameroon",level:"2"},{id:"sec_11_2",title:"4.2 Legislation on protest march in Cameroon: the anti-terrorism law",level:"2"},{id:"sec_12_2",title:"4.3 Reaction to the restriction of protest march",level:"2"},{id:"sec_14",title:"5. Theoretical implications",level:"1"},{id:"sec_15",title:"6. Conclusions",level:"1"}],chapterReferences:[{id:"B1",body:'\nLipsky, M.,. Protest as a Political Resource. American Political Science Review, 1968 62,1144-1115 ;\n'},{id:"B2",body:'\nTurner, R. H., The Public Perception of Protest. American Sociological Review, 196934,815-831;.\n'},{id:"B3",body:'\n\nhttps://www.libertyhumanrights.org.uk/right/right-to-protest/\n\n'},{id:"B4",body:'\nHerring S. The co-evolution of computer mediated discourse analysis and CMC’, paper presented at the Approaches to Digital Discourse Analysis Conference, Valencia Wilson, R.E., Gosling, S.D., and Graham, L.T. (2012) ‘A review of Facebook research in the social sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2015; 7(3):203-220\n'},{id:"B5",body:'\nMisha G. States embark on a scramble for cyberspace. Financial Times. 2010 available at https://www.ft.com/content/05be0df8-3205-11df-a8d1-00144feabdc0[10]\n'},{id:"B6",body:'\nEbele TS. Collecting Images as Data in Qualitative Data Collection. In: Flick U, editor. London: London Sage Publication; 2018\n'},{id:"B7",body:'\nWilson RE, Gosling SD, Graham LT. A review of Facebook research in the social sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2012;7(3):203-220\n'},{id:"B8",body:'\nEbele TS. Collecting Images as Data in Qualitative Data Collection. In: Flick U, editor. London: London Sage Publication; 2018\n'},{id:"B9",body:'\nCollier J, Collier M. Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press; 1986\n'},{id:"B10",body:'\nBecker HS. Visual evidence: A Seventh Man, the specified generalisation, and the work of the reader. Visual Studies. 2002;17(1):3-11\n'},{id:"B11",body:'\nNanche Billa Robert Uprising and Human Rights Abuses in Southern Cameroon-Ambazonia [Online First], IntechOpen, (2020) DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91053. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/uprising-and-human-rights-abuses-in-southern-cameroon-ambazoia\n\n'},{id:"B12",body:'\nWikipedia, Free Encyclopedia. 2016-2017 Cameroonian Protest. 2019. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016%E2%80%932017_Cameroonian_protests\n\n'},{id:"B13",body:'\nAfricanews Morning Call: Cameroon’s Lawyer. 2016\n'},{id:"B14",body:'\nCatherine Soi. Cameroon Language Strike. English Teachers Say No to French. Aljazeera; 2016\n'},{id:"B15",body:'\nZigolo T. Les Anglophone de Bamenda France 24. 2016. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zfvcnbapSU\n\n'},{id:"B16",body:'\nStopBlaBlaCam. (True or False?) Two Anglophone Lawyers beaten up in Buea. 2007. Available from: http://stopBlaBlacam.com/culture-and-society/1511-177-two-anglophone-lawyers beaten-up-in-Buea\n'},{id:"B17",body:'\nUprising 4: Police brutality on Lawyers. 2016. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-feBb4WWmn8\n\n'},{id:"B18",body:'\nCatherine Soi. Cameroon Language Strike. English Teachers Say No to French. Aljazeera; 2016\n'},{id:"B19",body:'\nUniversity of Buea Strike Report. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w70vJprHtdU\n\n'},{id:"B20",body:'\nIsmail Akwei Protest spread in Cameroon Anglophone Regions as Biya Addresses UN; Africanews 22nd September, 2017 https://www.africanews.com/2017/09/22/protests-spread-in-cameroon-anglophone-regions-as-biya-addresses-un/\n\n'},{id:"B21",body:'\nNew African Magazine. 2018. “Winnie: The Undefeated” No. 583, May\n'},{id:"B22",body:'\nJames Agbor September 22, 2017; the Day Ambazonians Vomited French Cameroun, Sisiku Ayuk-Tabe Day in 2018, Batanews (22 September 2018)\n'},{id:"B23",body:'\nCrisis Group from Early Warning to Early Action (19th October, 2017), https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/cameroon/130-cameroon-worsening-anglophone-crisis-calls-strong-measures\n\n'},{id:"B24",body:'\nCrisis Group, Cameroon worsening Anglophone crisis Calls for Strong Measures: Briefing No 130/Africa 19 October, 2017 https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/cameroon/130-cameroon-worsening-anglophone-crisis-calls-strong-measures\n\n'},{id:"B25",body:'\nPrimus Fonkeng, Insecurity, Forced Migration, And Internally Displaced Persons along the Cameroon Nigeria Border, 2003-2018 AfriHeritage Research Working Paper 2019 002 https://media.africaportal.org/documents/Insecurity_Forced_Migration_And_Internally_Displaced_Persons_.pdf\n\n'},{id:"B26",body:'\nBilly A, Israel Nyaburi N., Ugur Y. Cameroon and the Anglophone Crisis The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020 10.1007/978-3-030-11795-5_115-1\n'},{id:"B27",body:'\nABC (The Ambazonia Broadcasting Corporation) Remembering September 22 2017\n'},{id:"B28",body:'\nL’Afrique Tribune 29/01/2019, https://afrique.latribune.fr/politique/2019-01-29/arrestation-de-maurice-kamto-au-cameroun-que-risque-l-opposant-a-paul-biya-805514.html\n\n'},{id:"B29",body:'\nIIaria Allegrozzi ( 4th June 2019 ) Au Cameroon des arrestations massives de membres de l’opposition https://www.hrw.org/fr/news/2019/06/04/au-cameroun-des-arrestations-massives-de-membres-de-lopposition\n\n'},{id:"B30",body:'\nJeuneafrique , Cameroun : le gouvernement interdit les manifestations de soutien à Maurice Kamto 05 avril 2019 https://www.jeuneafrique.com/759322/politique/cameroun-le-gouvernement-interdit-les-manifestations-de-soutien-a-maurice-kamto/\n\n'},{id:"B31",body:'\nEmmanuel Batamag-Pourquoi le gouvernement camerounais interdit-il la marche pacifique du MRC ? Afrik.com 23 septembre 2020 https://www.afrik.com/pourquoi-le-gouvernement-camerounais-interdit-il-la-marche-pacifique-du-mrc\n\n'},{id:"B32",body:'\nLassad Ben Ahmed Cameroun: Des Manifestations appellent au départ de Paul Biya 22 September 2020 https://www.aa.com.tr/fr/afrique/cameroun-des-manifestations-appellent-au-d%C3%A9part-de-paul-biya-/1981550\n\n'},{id:"B33",body:'\nAFP Cameroon Police use tear gas to break up protesters Newvision 23 septembre 2020 https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1527636/cameroon-police-tear-gas-break-protest\n\n'},{id:"B34",body:'\nAnadoulou Agency: Confrontation with Police https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/cameroon-protesters-urge-president-biya-to-step-down/1982045\n\n'},{id:"B35",body:'\nRefworld Latest Refworld Updates Cameroun: Loi N°2014/028 Portant Répression des Actes de Terrorisme\nhttps://www.refworld.org/country,,,,CMR,50ffbce5226,,,0.html\n'},{id:"B36",body:'\nJean-Claude N. To give a dog a bad name to kill it – Cameroon’s anti-terrorism law as a strategic framework for human rights’ violations Journal Of Contemporary African Studies 2021, VOL. 39, NO. 1, 119-134\n'},{id:"B37",body:'\nSahara Reporters–News Agency Nigeria..“Cameroon Judge Arrested in Crackdown 2017. “https://secure.saharareporters.com/2017/01/22/cameroon-judge-arrested-crackdown]\n'},{id:"B38",body:'\nOkello, Christina.“Kamto Rebellion Charges Deepens Cameroon Crisis. 2019”http://www.rfi.fr/en/africa/20190213-Maurice-Kamto-rebellion-charge-deepens-cameroon-crisis-opposition-leader-Biya.\n'},{id:"B39",body:'\nAljazeera News.2020“Cameroonian journalist Samuel Wazizi dies in government detention.”https://www/aljazeera.com/ news/2020/06/cameroonian-journalist-samuel-wazizi-dies-gov-detention-rsf-200604194930958.html.\n'},{id:"B40",body:'\nReporters Without Borders.2020“Cameroon: Journalist Accused of Secessionism Detained for SixMonths.”https://rsf.org/en/news/cameroon-journlist-accused-secessionism-detained-six-months.\n'},{id:"B41",body:'\nMimi Mefo Info.2020.“Breaking!Cameroon stage anti-Macron Protest in Yaoundé. 2020 “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XjWkANnJK0.\n'},{id:"B42",body:'\nUnited Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner. Cameroon: UN experts concerned by crackdown on protests after election11 December2018 https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=24008&LangID=E\n'},{id:"B43",body:'\nHuman Rights Watch, Cameroon: Heightened Crackdown on Opposition Stop Using Covid-19, Anti-Terror Law as Pretext to Quell Dissent 21 September, 2020 https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/09/21/cameroon-heightened-crackdown-opposition\n\n'},{id:"B44",body:'\nMarx, K. and Engels, F. The German Ideology, Vol. New York: International Publishers Co; 1970, 1845\n'},{id:"B45",body:'\nTajfel, H. & Turner, J., 1979. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. InW. G. Austin& S. Worchel (eds) The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA:Brooks/Cole, 33-48.\n'},{id:"B46",body:'\nTajfel, H. & Turner, J., 1979. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. InW. G. Austin& S. Worchel (eds) The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA:Brooks/Cole, 33-48.\n'},{id:"B47",body:'\nTajfel, H. & Turner, J. C., 1986. The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. InS. Worchel & W. Austin (eds) Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 7-24.\n'},{id:"B48",body:'\nInternational crisis group Easing Cameroon’s Ethnopolitical Tensions, On and Offline Africa Report N°295 | 3 December 2020 https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/295-easing-cameroons-ethno-political-tensions.pdf\n\n'},{id:"B49",body:'\nAteki Seta Caxton,The Anglophone Dilemma in Cameroon reliefweb 21 Jul 2017 https://reliefweb.int/report/cameroon/ anglophone-dilemma-cameroon\n'},{id:"B50",body:'\nJoint Motion For A Resolution In Resolution in Cameroon https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/RC-8-2019-0245_EN.html\nhttps://web.facebook.com/watch/live/?v=1037405450030147&ref=watch_permalink\n\n'},{id:"B51",body:'\nAmindeh Blaise Atabong (2017) Cameroon English-Speaking region has turned Violent with bombing Quartz Africa . 22, (Friday) https://qz.com/africa/1084943/cameroons-anglophone-crisis-turns-violent-as-president-paul-biya-speak-at-unga-2017/\n\n'}],footnotes:[],contributors:[{corresp:"yes",contributorFullName:"Nanche Billa Robert",address:"anchefile@yahoo.co.uk",affiliation:''}],corrections:null},book:{id:"9537",type:"book",title:"Human Rights in the Contemporary World",subtitle:null,fullTitle:"Human Rights in the Contemporary World",slug:null,publishedDate:null,bookSignature:"Dr. Trudy Corrigan",coverURL:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/9537.jpg",licenceType:"CC BY 3.0",editedByType:null,isbn:"978-1-83968-874-4",printIsbn:"978-1-83968-873-7",pdfIsbn:"978-1-83968-875-1",isAvailableForWebshopOrdering:!0,editors:[{id:"197557",title:"Dr.",name:"Trudy",middleName:null,surname:"Corrigan",slug:"trudy-corrigan",fullName:"Trudy Corrigan"}],productType:{id:"1",title:"Edited Volume",chapterContentType:"chapter",authoredCaption:"Edited 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Paying the OAPF

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At IntechOpen, the majority of OAPFs are paid by an Author’s institution or funding agency - Institutions (73%) vs. Authors (23%).

\\n\\n

The first step in obtaining funds for your Open Access publication begins with your institution or library. IntechOpen’s publishing standards align with most institutional funding programs. Our advice is to petition your institution for help in financing your Open Access publication.

\\n\\n

However, as Open Access becomes a more commonly used publishing option for the dissemination of scientific and scholarly content, in addition to institutions, there are a growing number of funders who allow the use of grants for covering OA publication costs, or have established separate funds for the same purpose.

\\n\\n

Please consult our Open Access Funding page to explore some of these funding opportunities and learn more about how you could finance your IntechOpen publication. Keep in mind that this list is not definitive, and while we are constantly updating and informing our Authors of new funding opportunities, we recommend that you always check with your institution first.

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IntechOpen Waivers in Action

\\n\\n

For Authors who are unable to obtain funding from their institution or research funding bodies and still need help in covering publication costs, IntechOpen offers the possibility of applying for a Waiver.

\\n\\n

Our mission is to support Authors in publishing their research and making an impact within the scientific community. Currently, 14% of Authors receive full waivers and 6% receive partial waivers.

\\n\\n

While providing support and advice to all our international Authors, waiver priority will be given to those Authors who reside in countries that are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies. In this way, we can help ensure that the scientific work being carried out can make an impact within the worldwide scientific community, no matter where an Author might live.

\\n\\n

How to Apply for a Waiver

\\n\\n

The application process is open after your submitted manuscript has been accepted for publication. To apply, please fill out a Waiver Request Form and send it to your Author Service Manager. If you have an official letter from your university or institution showing that funds for your OA publication are unavailable, please attach that as well. The Waiver Request will normally be addressed within one week from the application date. All chapters that receive waivers or partial waivers will be designated as such online.

\\n\\n

Download Waiver Request Form

\\n\\n

Feel free to contact us at funders@intechopen.com if you have any questions about Funding options or our Waiver program. If you have already begun the process and require further assistance, please contact your Author Service Manager, who is there to assist you!

\\n\\n

Note: All data represented above was collected by IntechOpen from 2013 to 2017.

\\n"}]'},components:[{type:"htmlEditorComponent",content:'

Paying the OAPF

\n\n

At IntechOpen, the majority of OAPFs are paid by an Author’s institution or funding agency - Institutions (73%) vs. Authors (23%).

\n\n

The first step in obtaining funds for your Open Access publication begins with your institution or library. IntechOpen’s publishing standards align with most institutional funding programs. Our advice is to petition your institution for help in financing your Open Access publication.

\n\n

However, as Open Access becomes a more commonly used publishing option for the dissemination of scientific and scholarly content, in addition to institutions, there are a growing number of funders who allow the use of grants for covering OA publication costs, or have established separate funds for the same purpose.

\n\n

Please consult our Open Access Funding page to explore some of these funding opportunities and learn more about how you could finance your IntechOpen publication. Keep in mind that this list is not definitive, and while we are constantly updating and informing our Authors of new funding opportunities, we recommend that you always check with your institution first.

\n\n

IntechOpen Waivers in Action

\n\n

For Authors who are unable to obtain funding from their institution or research funding bodies and still need help in covering publication costs, IntechOpen offers the possibility of applying for a Waiver.

\n\n

Our mission is to support Authors in publishing their research and making an impact within the scientific community. Currently, 14% of Authors receive full waivers and 6% receive partial waivers.

\n\n

While providing support and advice to all our international Authors, waiver priority will be given to those Authors who reside in countries that are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies. In this way, we can help ensure that the scientific work being carried out can make an impact within the worldwide scientific community, no matter where an Author might live.

\n\n

How to Apply for a Waiver

\n\n

The application process is open after your submitted manuscript has been accepted for publication. To apply, please fill out a Waiver Request Form and send it to your Author Service Manager. If you have an official letter from your university or institution showing that funds for your OA publication are unavailable, please attach that as well. The Waiver Request will normally be addressed within one week from the application date. All chapters that receive waivers or partial waivers will be designated as such online.

\n\n

Download Waiver Request Form

\n\n

Feel free to contact us at funders@intechopen.com if you have any questions about Funding options or our Waiver program. If you have already begun the process and require further assistance, please contact your Author Service Manager, who is there to assist you!

\n\n

Note: All data represented above was collected by IntechOpen from 2013 to 2017.

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Aguilera, Mario A. Ramos and Angel D. Sappa",authors:[{id:"142787",title:"Dr.",name:"Cristhian",middleName:null,surname:"Aguilera-Carrasco",slug:"cristhian-aguilera-carrasco",fullName:"Cristhian Aguilera-Carrasco"},{id:"163307",title:"Dr.",name:"Mario",middleName:null,surname:"Ramos-Maldonado",slug:"mario-ramos-maldonado",fullName:"Mario Ramos-Maldonado"},{id:"163308",title:"Dr.",name:"Angel D.",middleName:null,surname:"Sappa",slug:"angel-d.-sappa",fullName:"Angel D. 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This system can be enhanced to encompass the imaginary numbers set after the addition of three novel axioms. As a result, any random experiment can be executed in the complex probabilities set C which is the sum of the real probabilities set R and the imaginary probabilities set M. We aim here to incorporate supplementary imaginary dimensions to the random experiment occurring in the “real” laboratory in R and therefore to compute all the probabilities in the sets R, M, and C. Accordingly, the probability in the whole set C = R + M is constantly equivalent to one independently of the distribution of the input random variable in R, and subsequently the output of the stochastic experiment in R can be determined absolutely in C. This is the consequence of the fact that the probability in C is computed after the subtraction of the chaotic factor from the degree of our knowledge of the nondeterministic experiment. 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This scheme can be improved to embody the set of imaginary numbers after adding three new axioms. Accordingly, any stochastic phenomenon can be performed in the set C of complex probabilities which is the summation of the set R of real probabilities and the set M of imaginary probabilities. Our objective now is to encompass complementary imaginary dimensions to the stochastic phenomenon taking place in the “real” laboratory in R and as a consequence to gauge in the sets R, M, and C all the corresponding probabilities. Hence, the probability in the entire set C = R + M is incessantly equal to one independently of all the probabilities of the input stochastic variable distribution in R, and subsequently the output of the random phenomenon in R can be evaluated totally in C. This is due to the fact that the probability in C is calculated after the elimination and subtraction of the chaotic factor from the degree of our knowledge of the nondeterministic phenomenon. 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Although this is a trivial problem in theory, in the practice of OMA, this is a troublesome problem. Errors, such as truncation errors, measurement noise, modeling errors, estimation errors make the separation difficult if not impossible. This leads to the appearance of nonphysical modes, and their separation from physical modes is difficult. An engineering solution to this problem is based on the so-called stability diagram which shows alignments for physical modes. This still does not solve the problem since it is rare to find modes stable in the same order. Moreover, nonphysical modes may also stabilize. Recently, the stochastic modal appropriation (SMA) algorithm was introduced as a valid competitor for existing OMA algorithms. This algorithm is based on isolating the modes mode by mode with the advantage that the modal parameters are identified simultaneously in a single step for a given mode. This is conceptually similar to ground vibration testing (GVT). SMA is based on the data correlation sequence which enjoys a special physical structure making the identification of nonphysical modes impossible under the isolating conditions. 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For this reason, simulation codes, based on Monte Carlo, have been proposed. The codes currently available are MNCP, EGSnrc, Geant, FLUKA, PENELOPE, as well as GAMOS and TOPAS. These simulation codes have become a tool for dose and dose distributions, essentially, but also for other applications such as design clinical, tool for commissioning of an accelerator linear, shielding, radiation protection, some radiobiologic aspect, treatment planning systems, prediction of data from results of simulation scenarios. In this chapter will be present some applications for radiotherapy procedures with use, specifically, megavoltage x-rays and electrons beams, in scenarios with homogeneous and anatomical phantoms for determining dose, dose distribution, as well dosimetric parameters through the PENELOPE and TOPAS code.",book:{id:"11066",slug:"the-monte-carlo-methods-recent-advances-new-perspectives-and-applications",title:"The Monte Carlo Methods",fullTitle:"The Monte Carlo Methods - Recent Advances, New Perspectives and Applications"},signatures:"Iury Mergen Knoll, Ana Quevedo and Mirko Salomón Alva Sánchez",authors:[{id:"307138",title:"Dr.",name:"Mirko Salomón",middleName:null,surname:"Alva-Sánchez",slug:"mirko-salomon-alva-sanchez",fullName:"Mirko Salomón Alva-Sánchez"},{id:"416560",title:"Dr.",name:"Ana",middleName:null,surname:"Quevedo",slug:"ana-quevedo",fullName:"Ana Quevedo"},{id:"440449",title:"BSc.",name:"Iury",middleName:null,surname:"Mergen Knoll",slug:"iury-mergen-knoll",fullName:"Iury Mergen Knoll"}]},{id:"38552",title:"A Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Satisfiability Problem Using Dynamic Markov Chains with Linear Regression Equilibrium",slug:"a-simulated-annealing-algorithm-for-the-satisfiability-problem-using-dynamic-markov-chains-with-line",totalDownloads:2752,totalCrossrefCites:1,totalDimensionsCites:8,abstract:null,book:{id:"3003",slug:"simulated-annealing-advances-applications-and-hybridizations",title:"Simulated Annealing",fullTitle:"Simulated Annealing - 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Portugal",institution:null},editorTwo:null,editorThree:null}]},overviewPageOFChapters:{paginationCount:41,paginationItems:[{id:"81638",title:"Aging and Neuropsychiatric Disease: A General Overview of Prevalence and Trends",doi:"10.5772/intechopen.103102",signatures:"Jelena Milić",slug:"aging-and-neuropsychiatric-disease-a-general-overview-of-prevalence-and-trends",totalDownloads:3,totalCrossrefCites:0,totalDimensionsCites:0,authors:null,book:{title:"Senescence",coverURL:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/books/images_new/10935.jpg",subseries:{id:"11",title:"Cell Physiology"}}},{id:"81566",title:"New and Emerging Technologies for Integrative Ambulatory Autonomic Assessment and Intervention as a Catalyst in the Synergy of Remote Geocoded Biosensing, Algorithmic Networked Cloud Computing, Deep Learning, and Regenerative/Biomic Medicine: Further Real",doi:"10.5772/intechopen.104092",signatures:"Robert L. 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Moreover, in the field of machine learning, evolutionary computation has carved out a significant niche both in the generation of learning models and in the automatic design and optimization of hyperparameters in deep learning models. This collection aims to include quality volumes on various topics related to evolutionary algorithms and, alternatively, other metaheuristics of interest inspired by nature. For example, some of the issues of interest could be the following: Advances in evolutionary computation (Genetic algorithms, Genetic programming, Bio-inspired metaheuristics, Hybrid metaheuristics, Parallel ECs); Applications of evolutionary algorithms (Machine learning and Data Mining with EAs, Search-Based Software Engineering, Scheduling, and Planning Applications, Smart Transport Applications, Applications to Games, Image Analysis, Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition, Applications to Sustainability).",coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/25.jpg",keywords:"Genetic Algorithms, Genetic Programming, Evolutionary Programming, Evolution Strategies, Hybrid Algorithms, Bioinspired Metaheuristics, Ant Colony Optimization, Evolutionary Learning, Hyperparameter Optimization"},{id:"26",title:"Machine Learning and Data Mining",scope:"The scope of machine learning and data mining is immense and is growing every day. It has become a massive part of our daily lives, making predictions based on experience, making this a fascinating area that solves problems that otherwise would not be possible or easy to solve. This topic aims to encompass algorithms that learn from experience (supervised and unsupervised), improve their performance over time and enable machines to make data-driven decisions. It is not limited to any particular applications, but contributions are encouraged from all disciplines.",coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/26.jpg",keywords:"Intelligent Systems, Machine Learning, Data Science, Data Mining, Artificial Intelligence"},{id:"27",title:"Multi-Agent Systems",scope:"Multi-agent systems are recognised as a state of the art field in Artificial Intelligence studies, which is popular due to the usefulness in facilitation capabilities to handle real-world problem-solving in a distributed fashion. The area covers many techniques that offer solutions to emerging problems in robotics and enterprise-level software systems. Collaborative intelligence is highly and effectively achieved with multi-agent systems. Areas of application include swarms of robots, flocks of UAVs, collaborative software management. Given the level of technological enhancements, the popularity of machine learning in use has opened a new chapter in multi-agent studies alongside the practical challenges and long-lasting collaboration issues in the field. It has increased the urgency and the need for further studies in this field. We welcome chapters presenting research on the many applications of multi-agent studies including, but not limited to, the following key areas: machine learning for multi-agent systems; modeling swarms robots and flocks of UAVs with multi-agent systems; decision science and multi-agent systems; software engineering for and with multi-agent systems; tools and technologies of multi-agent systems.",coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/27.jpg",keywords:"Collaborative Intelligence, Learning, Distributed Control System, Swarm Robotics, Decision Science, Software Engineering"}],annualVolumeBook:{},thematicCollection:[],selectedSeries:null,selectedSubseries:null},seriesLanding:{item:{id:"11",title:"Biochemistry",doi:"10.5772/intechopen.72877",issn:"2632-0983",scope:"Biochemistry, the study of chemical transformations occurring within living organisms, impacts all areas of life sciences, from molecular crystallography and genetics to ecology, medicine, and population biology. Biochemistry examines macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids – and their building blocks, structures, functions, and interactions. Much of biochemistry is devoted to enzymes, proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, enzyme structures, mechanisms of action and their roles within cells. Biochemistry also studies small signaling molecules, coenzymes, inhibitors, vitamins, and hormones, which play roles in life processes. Biochemical experimentation, besides coopting classical chemistry methods, e.g., chromatography, adopted new techniques, e.g., X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, NMR, radioisotopes, and developed sophisticated microbial genetic tools, e.g., auxotroph mutants and their revertants, fermentation, etc. More recently, biochemistry embraced the ‘big data’ omics systems. Initial biochemical studies have been exclusively analytic: dissecting, purifying, and examining individual components of a biological system; in the apt words of Efraim Racker (1913 –1991), “Don’t waste clean thinking on dirty enzymes.” Today, however, biochemistry is becoming more agglomerative and comprehensive, setting out to integrate and describe entirely particular biological systems. The ‘big data’ metabolomics can define the complement of small molecules, e.g., in a soil or biofilm sample; proteomics can distinguish all the comprising proteins, e.g., serum; metagenomics can identify all the genes in a complex environment, e.g., the bovine rumen. This Biochemistry Series will address the current research on biomolecules and the emerging trends with great promise.",coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series/covers/11.jpg",latestPublicationDate:"May 7th, 2022",hasOnlineFirst:!0,numberOfOpenTopics:4,numberOfPublishedChapters:283,numberOfPublishedBooks:27,editor:{id:"31610",title:"Dr.",name:"Miroslav",middleName:null,surname:"Blumenberg",fullName:"Miroslav Blumenberg",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/31610/images/system/31610.jpg",biography:"Miroslav Blumenberg, Ph.D., was born in Subotica and received his BSc in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. He completed his Ph.D. at MIT in Organic Chemistry; he followed up his Ph.D. with two postdoctoral study periods at Stanford University. Since 1983, he has been a faculty member of the RO Perelman Department of Dermatology, NYU School of Medicine, where he is codirector of a training grant in cutaneous biology. Dr. Blumenberg’s research is focused on the epidermis, expression of keratin genes, transcription profiling, keratinocyte differentiation, inflammatory diseases and cancers, and most recently the effects of the microbiome on the skin. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed research articles and graduated numerous Ph.D. and postdoctoral students.",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"New York University Langone Medical Center",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"United States of America"}}},subseries:[{id:"14",title:"Cell and Molecular Biology",keywords:"Omics (Transcriptomics; Proteomics; Metabolomics), Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Signal Transduction and Regulation, Cell Growth and Differentiation, Apoptosis, Necroptosis, Ferroptosis, Autophagy, Cell Cycle, Macromolecules and Complexes, Gene Expression",scope:"The Cell and Molecular Biology topic within the IntechOpen Biochemistry Series aims to rapidly publish contributions on all aspects of cell and molecular biology, including aspects related to biochemical and genetic research (not only in humans but all living beings). We encourage the submission of manuscripts that provide novel and mechanistic insights that report significant advances in the fields. Topics include, but are not limited to: Advanced techniques of cellular and molecular biology (Molecular methodologies, imaging techniques, and bioinformatics); Biological activities at the molecular level; Biological processes of cell functions, cell division, senescence, maintenance, and cell death; Biomolecules interactions; Cancer; Cell biology; Chemical biology; Computational biology; Cytochemistry; Developmental biology; Disease mechanisms and therapeutics; DNA, and RNA metabolism; Gene functions, genetics, and genomics; Genetics; Immunology; Medical microbiology; Molecular biology; Molecular genetics; Molecular processes of cell and organelle dynamics; Neuroscience; Protein biosynthesis, degradation, and functions; Regulation of molecular interactions in a cell; Signalling networks and system biology; Structural biology; Virology and microbiology.",annualVolume:11410,isOpenForSubmission:!0,coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/14.jpg",editor:{id:"165627",title:"Dr.",name:"Rosa María",middleName:null,surname:"Martínez-Espinosa",fullName:"Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/165627/images/system/165627.jpeg",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"University of Alicante",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Spain"}}},editorTwo:null,editorThree:null,editorialBoard:[{id:"79367",title:"Dr.",name:"Ana Isabel",middleName:null,surname:"Flores",fullName:"Ana Isabel Flores",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bRpIOQA0/Profile_Picture_1632418099564",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Hospital Universitario 12 De Octubre",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Spain"}}},{id:"328234",title:"Ph.D.",name:"Christian",middleName:null,surname:"Palavecino",fullName:"Christian Palavecino",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0033Y000030DhEhQAK/Profile_Picture_1628835318625",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Central University of Chile",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Chile"}}},{id:"186585",title:"Dr.",name:"Francisco Javier",middleName:null,surname:"Martin-Romero",fullName:"Francisco Javier Martin-Romero",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bSB3HQAW/Profile_Picture_1631258137641",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"University of Extremadura",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Spain"}}}]},{id:"15",title:"Chemical Biology",keywords:"Phenolic Compounds, Essential Oils, Modification of Biomolecules, Glycobiology, Combinatorial Chemistry, Therapeutic peptides, Enzyme Inhibitors",scope:"Chemical biology spans the fields of chemistry and biology involving the application of biological and chemical molecules and techniques. In recent years, the application of chemistry to biological molecules has gained significant interest in medicinal and pharmacological studies. This topic will be devoted to understanding the interplay between biomolecules and chemical compounds, their structure and function, and their potential applications in related fields. Being a part of the biochemistry discipline, the ideas and concepts that have emerged from Chemical Biology have affected other related areas. This topic will closely deal with all emerging trends in this discipline.",annualVolume:11411,isOpenForSubmission:!0,coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/15.jpg",editor:{id:"441442",title:"Dr.",name:"Şükrü",middleName:null,surname:"Beydemir",fullName:"Şükrü Beydemir",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0033Y00003GsUoIQAV/Profile_Picture_1634557147521",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Anadolu University",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Turkey"}}},editorTwo:{id:"13652",title:"Prof.",name:"Deniz",middleName:null,surname:"Ekinci",fullName:"Deniz Ekinci",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002aYLT1QAO/Profile_Picture_1634557223079",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Ondokuz Mayıs University",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Turkey"}}},editorThree:null,editorialBoard:[{id:"241413",title:"Dr.",name:"Azhar",middleName:null,surname:"Rasul",fullName:"Azhar Rasul",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bRT1oQAG/Profile_Picture_1635251978933",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Government College University, Faisalabad",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Pakistan"}}},{id:"178316",title:"Ph.D.",name:"Sergey",middleName:null,surname:"Sedykh",fullName:"Sergey Sedykh",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/178316/images/system/178316.jfif",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Novosibirsk State University",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Russia"}}}]},{id:"17",title:"Metabolism",keywords:"Biomolecules Metabolism, Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Pathways, Key Metabolic Enzymes, Metabolic Adaptation",scope:"Metabolism is frequently defined in biochemistry textbooks as the overall process that allows living systems to acquire and use the free energy they need for their vital functions or the chemical processes that occur within a living organism to maintain life. Behind these definitions are hidden all the aspects of normal and pathological functioning of all processes that the topic ‘Metabolism’ will cover within the Biochemistry Series. Thus all studies on metabolism will be considered for publication.",annualVolume:11413,isOpenForSubmission:!0,coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/17.jpg",editor:{id:"138626",title:"Dr.",name:"Yannis",middleName:null,surname:"Karamanos",fullName:"Yannis Karamanos",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002g6Jv2QAE/Profile_Picture_1629356660984",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Artois University",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"France"}}},editorTwo:null,editorThree:null,editorialBoard:[{id:"243049",title:"Dr.",name:"Anca",middleName:null,surname:"Pantea Stoian",fullName:"Anca Pantea Stoian",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/243049/images/system/243049.jpg",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Romania"}}},{id:"203824",title:"Dr.",name:"Attilio",middleName:null,surname:"Rigotti",fullName:"Attilio Rigotti",profilePictureURL:"//cdnintech.com/web/frontend/www/assets/author.svg",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Pontifical Catholic University of Chile",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Chile"}}},{id:"300470",title:"Dr.",name:"Yanfei (Jacob)",middleName:null,surname:"Qi",fullName:"Yanfei (Jacob) Qi",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/300470/images/system/300470.jpg",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Australia"}}}]},{id:"18",title:"Proteomics",keywords:"Mono- and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (1-and 2-DE), Liquid Chromatography (LC), Mass Spectrometry/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS; MS/MS), Proteins",scope:"With the recognition that the human genome cannot provide answers to the etiology of a disorder, changes in the proteins expressed by a genome became a focus in research. Thus proteomics, an area of research that detects all protein forms expressed in an organism, including splice isoforms and post-translational modifications, is more suitable than genomics for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemical processes that govern life. The most common proteomics applications are currently in the clinical field for the identification, in a variety of biological matrices, of biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of disorders. From the comparison of proteomic profiles of control and disease or different physiological states, which may emerge, changes in protein expression can provide new insights into the roles played by some proteins in human pathologies. Understanding how proteins function and interact with each other is another goal of proteomics that makes this approach even more intriguing. Specialized technology and expertise are required to assess the proteome of any biological sample. Currently, proteomics relies mainly on mass spectrometry (MS) combined with electrophoretic (1 or 2-DE-MS) and/or chromatographic techniques (LC-MS/MS). MS is an excellent tool that has gained popularity in proteomics because of its ability to gather a complex body of information such as cataloging protein expression, identifying protein modification sites, and defining protein interactions. The Proteomics topic aims to attract contributions on all aspects of MS-based proteomics that, by pushing the boundaries of MS capabilities, may address biological problems that have not been resolved yet.",annualVolume:11414,isOpenForSubmission:!0,coverUrl:"https://cdn.intechopen.com/series_topics/covers/18.jpg",editor:{id:"200689",title:"Prof.",name:"Paolo",middleName:null,surname:"Iadarola",fullName:"Paolo Iadarola",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bSCl8QAG/Profile_Picture_1623568118342",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"University of Pavia",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Italy"}}},editorTwo:{id:"201414",title:"Dr.",name:"Simona",middleName:null,surname:"Viglio",fullName:"Simona Viglio",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bRKDHQA4/Profile_Picture_1630402531487",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"University of Pavia",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Italy"}}},editorThree:null,editorialBoard:[{id:"72288",title:"Dr.",name:"Arli Aditya",middleName:null,surname:"Parikesit",fullName:"Arli Aditya Parikesit",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/72288/images/system/72288.jpg",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Indonesia"}}},{id:"40928",title:"Dr.",name:"Cesar",middleName:null,surname:"Lopez-Camarillo",fullName:"Cesar Lopez-Camarillo",profilePictureURL:"https://mts.intechopen.com/storage/users/40928/images/3884_n.png",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Mexico"}}},{id:"81926",title:"Dr.",name:"Shymaa",middleName:null,surname:"Enany",fullName:"Shymaa Enany",profilePictureURL:"https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/intech-files/0030O00002bRqB9QAK/Profile_Picture_1626163237970",institutionString:null,institution:{name:"Suez Canal University",institutionURL:null,country:{name:"Egypt"}}}]}]}},libraryRecommendation:{success:null,errors:{},institutions:[]},route:{name:"chapter.detail",path:"/chapters/70675",hash:"",query:{},params:{id:"70675"},fullPath:"/chapters/70675",meta:{},from:{name:null,path:"/",hash:"",query:{},params:{},fullPath:"/",meta:{}}}},function(){var e;(e=document.currentScript||document.scripts[document.scripts.length-1]).parentNode.removeChild(e)}() chison ultrasound